ChickenBones: A Journal

for Literary & Artistic African-American Themes



Over the years, Mitchell fought discrimination in the courts. She served as

counsel in suits to eliminate  segregation in municipal recreation facilities,

restaurants and public schools in Baltimore City 



Juanita E. Jackson to Join 

N.A.A.C.P. National Staff



Miss Juanita Elizabeth Jackson, of Baltimore, Maryland, will join the national office staff of the National Association of the Advancement of Colored People, September 15 [1935]. Her duties will include field work, especially among the youth division and junior branches and with church groups, both young people and adults.

Miss Jackson, despite her youth, has been active in national movements among young people for the past five years. She was born in Hot Springs, Ark., but grew up and was educated in the public schools of Baltimore. She was graduated from the Frederick Douglass high school there in 1927. She attended Morgan College, but received her B.S. degree from the University of Pennsylvania in 1931. She taught in the Baltimore schools and returned to the University of Pennsylvania last year and secured her M.A. degree in sociology in June, 1935.

For three summers she traveled  extensively through the South, Middle West and Far West for the Methodist Episcopal church. She is vice president of the National Council of Youth of the M.E. church, an organization composed of 18,000 Methodist youth groups. Perhaps Miss Jackson is best known as the founder and president of the City-Wide Young People’s Forum of Baltimore, which holds meetings throughout the winter, regularly attracting audiences of 1,500 to 2,000 persons. 

Miss Jackson is a member of the Alpha Kappa Alpha sorority, of the American Sociological society, the women’s auxiliary of the Baltimore Urban League, and the executive committee of the Baltimore N.A.A.C.P. She was secretary of the interracial commission at the University of Pennsylvania and a member there of the Y.W.C.A. cabinet. In July of this year she was a scholarship student at the Institute of Race Relations at Swarthmore college. She is the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Keiffer A. Jackson, 1216 Druid Hill Avenue, Baltimore. 

Source: The Reflector (Charlottesville’s Only Negro Weekly) Issue Number:109; Date: 09/31/1935 ; p. 1, c. 1


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Juanita  Elizabeth Jackson Mitchell, born  2 January 1913, in  Hot Springs, Arkansas, was an African-American lawyer, administrator and activist. She was the daughter of Kieffer Albert Jackson and Dr. Lillie Mae Carroll Jackson. She was the second born of four children. Her siblings were Virginia, the oldest, Marion, and Bowen Kieffer.

She attended Frederick Douglass High School; Morgan State College; The University of Pennsylvania where she attained a B.S. in education, cum laude, 1931, and M.A. in sociology, 1935; University of Maryland School of Law, LL.B., 1950.

On September 7, 1938 she married Clarence M. Mitchell, Jr. at Sharp Street Memorial Methodist Church.

Clarence Mitchell II was a lobbyist for the NAACP in the ’50s and in the ’60s. He was often referred to as the 101st senator, Clarence and Juanita had four sons Clarence Mitchell III, Michael Bowen, Keiffer Jackson, and George Davis. An Avowed Freedom Fighter, has been active throughout her life promoting human and civil rights. When the University of Maryland was finally required to open its law school to Blacks in the 1940’s, Mitchell was among the first to attend. She was both the first Black woman to attend the Law School and the first Black woman to practice law in Maryland.

Over the years, Mitchell fought discrimination in the courts. She served as counsel in suits to eliminate segregation in municipal recreation facilities, restaurants and public schools in Baltimore City and other jurisdictions in Maryland, namely, the desegregation of the Fort Smallwood Municipal Park Beach and the swimming pools in Baltimore. Mrs. Mitchell also advocated the prevention of mass searches of private homes without warrants, specifically the police action in the “Veney Raids” in Baltimore in the 1950s, enjoining the Baltimore City Police Commission from conducting such mass searches of private homes without warrants. She also championed Baltimore school desegregation, making Maryland the first southern state to integrate its school system after the 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown versus Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas.

Mrs. Mitchell also taught in Baltimore high schools.  She was from 1935 to 1938 special assistant to Walter White and was the National Youth Director for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).   In her earlier years, she traveled extensively throughout the U.S. for the Bureau of Negro Work and the Methodist church, speaking and teaching courses in race relations. Committed to teaching and inspiring Maryland youth, Mitchell founded the Baltimore City-Wide Young People’s Forum in 1931, and the NAACP Youth Movement in 1935.  In 1942, she directed a march on Maryland’s Capitol with 2,000 citizens as well as the first city-wide “Register and Vote” campaign.  The campaign resulted in 11,000 new voter registrations on the books.  In 1958, she directed the NAACP’s “Register to Vote” campaign which resulted in over 20,000 new registrations.

Throughout the tumultuous years of the 40s, 50s, 60s, 70s and into the 80s, Juanita Mitchell manned the barricades, sometimes at the side of her sainted mother, Dr. Lillie Jackson, and at other times with her beloved husband, Clarence Mitchell, Jr. Later, she could be found leading her sons along the freedom trail. She was the president of the NAACP and she was really one of Thurgood Marshall’s mentors. She got Thurgood Marshall to organize pickets to integrate stores in Baltimore. And, of course, she is also the mother of former Maryland Senator Clarence Mitchell and former Maryland Representative Michael Mitchell.

Juanita Jackson Mitchell emphasized the words “Mobilization! Legislation! Litigation! Education! The Ballot!” until rendered physically immobile by a stroke in the late 80s, Mrs. Mitchell pressed those themes upon all within the sound of her voice. Juanita Jackson Mitchell died in Baltimore of a heart attack and stroke in July 1992.

In 1985 she was elected to the first Baltimore City Hall of Fame for Women by the Baltimore City Commission for Women and given the Everett J. Waring Honor by the Law Society of Howard County. In 1987 she joined her mother Dr. Lillie Carroll Jackson, who had worked with Thurgood Marshall in the ’30s, with her induction into the Maryland Women’s Hall of Fame. The Maryland Women’s Bar Association with their first and only honorary membership honored her in 1990 and in 1991 the Monumental City Bar Association created the Juanita Jackson Mitchell Scholarship Fund. 

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What We Want

By Stokely Carmichael

Reverend Marion Bascom Civilrighting /

A Christian Goon Squad in Black Baltimore

Clarence Logan and the Northwood Movement  / Chester Wickwire Desegregating Gwynn Oak Amusement Park

Roy Wilkins and Spiro Agnew in Annapolis  /  Agnew Speaks to Black Baltimore Leaders 1968

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Walter Hall Lively /  Forty Years of Determined Struggle  / The Wayfarer 4th Quarter 1967 Black Baltimore

Putting Baltimore’s People First  Dominance of Johns Hopkins   A Brief Economic History of Modern Baltimore

Understanding the Monumental City: A Bibliographic Essay on Baltimore History (

Richard J. Cox)

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#1 – Justify My Thug by Wahida Clark #2 – Flyy Girl by Omar Tyree #3 – Head Bangers: An APF Sexcapade by Zane #4 – Life Is Short But Wide by J. California Cooper #5 – Stackin’ Paper 2 Genesis’ Payback by Joy King #6 – Thug Lovin’ (Thug 4) by Wahida Clark #7 – When I Get Where I’m Going by Cheryl Robinson #8 – Casting the First Stone by Kimberla Lawson Roby #9 – The Sex Chronicles: Shattering the Myth by Zane

#10 – Covenant: A Thriller  by Brandon Massey

#11 – Diary Of A Street Diva  by Ashley and JaQuavis

#12 – Don’t Ever Tell  by Brandon Massey

#13 – For colored girls who have considered suicide  by Ntozake Shange

#14 – For the Love of Money : A Novel by Omar Tyree

#15 – Homemade Loves  by J. California Cooper

#16 – The Future Has a Past: Stories by J. California Cooper

#17 – Player Haters by Carl Weber

#18 – Purple Panties: An Anthology by Sidney Molare

#19 – Stackin’ Paper by Joy King

#20 – Children of the Street: An Inspector Darko Dawson Mystery by Kwei Quartey

#21 – The Upper Room by Mary Monroe

#22 – Thug Matrimony  by Wahida Clark

#23 – Thugs And The Women Who Love Them by Wahida Clark

#24 – Married Men by Carl Weber

#25 – I Dreamt I Was in Heaven – The Rampage of the Rufus Buck Gang by Leonce Gaiter


#1 – Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention by Manning Marable #2 – Confessions of a Video Vixen by Karrine Steffans #3 – Dear G-Spot: Straight Talk About Sex and Love by Zane #4 – Letters to a Young Brother: MANifest Your Destiny by Hill Harper #5 – Peace from Broken Pieces: How to Get Through What You’re Going Through by Iyanla Vanzant #6 – Selected Writings and Speeches of Marcus Garvey by Marcus Garvey #7 – The Ebony Cookbook: A Date with a Dish by Freda DeKnight #8 – The Isis Papers: The Keys to the Colors by Frances Cress Welsing #9 – The Mis-Education of the Negro by Carter Godwin Woodson

#10 – John Henrik Clarke and the Power of Africana History  by Ahati N. N. Toure

#11 – Fail Up: 20 Lessons on Building Success from Failure by Tavis Smiley

#12 –The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness by Michelle Alexander

#13 – The Black Male Handbook: A Blueprint for Life by Kevin Powell

#14 – The Other Wes Moore: One Name, Two Fates by Wes Moore

#15 – Why Men Fear Marriage: The Surprising Truth Behind Why So Many Men Can’t Commit  by RM Johnson

#16 – Black Titan: A.G. Gaston and the Making of a Black American Millionaire by Carol Jenkins

#17 – Brainwashed: Challenging the Myth of Black Inferiority by Tom Burrell

#18 – A New Earth: Awakening to Your Life’s Purpose by Eckhart Tolle

#19 – John Oliver Killens: A Life of Black Literary Activism by Keith Gilyard

#20 – Alain L. Locke: The Biography of a Philosopher by Leonard Harris

#21 – Age Ain’t Nothing but a Number: Black Women Explore Midlife by Carleen Brice

#22 – 2012 Guide to Literary Agents by Chuck Sambuchino #23 – Chicken Soup for the Prisoner’s Soul by Tom Lagana #24 – 101 Things Every Boy/Young Man of Color Should Know by LaMarr Darnell Shields

#25 – Beyond the Black Lady: Sexuality and the New African American Middle Class  by Lisa B. Thompson

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The Shadows of Youth

The Remarkable Journey of the Civil Rights Generation

By Andrew B. Lewis

With deep admiration and rigorous scholarship, historian Lewis (Gonna Sit at the Welcome Table) revisits the ragtag band of young men and women who formed the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. Impatient with what they considered the overly cautious and accommodating pace of the NAACP and Martin Luther King Jr., the black college students and their white allies, inspired by Gandhi’s principles of nonviolence and moral integrity, risked their lives to challenge a deeply entrenched system. Fanning out over the Jim Crow South, SNCC organized sit-ins, voter registration drives, Freedom Schools and protest marches. Despite early successes, the movement disintegrated in the late 1960s, succeeded by the militant Black Power movement.

The highly readable history follows the later careers of the principal leaders. Some, like Stokely Carmichael and H. Rap Brown, became bitter and disillusioned. Others, including Marion Barry, Julian Bond and John Lewis, tempered their idealism and moved from protest to politics, assuming positions of leadership within the very institutions they had challenged. According to the author, No organization contributed more to the civil rights movement than SNCC, and with his eloquent book, he offers a deserved tribute.—Publishers Weekly

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Across That Bridge: Life Lessons and a Vision for Change

By John Lewis

The Civil Rights Movement gave rise to the protest culture we know today, and the experiences of leaders like Congressman Lewis have never been more relevant. Now, more than ever, this nation needs a strong and moral voice to guide an engaged population through visionary change. Congressman John Lewis was a leader in the American Civil Rights Movement. He was chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and played a key role in the struggle to end segregation. Despite more than forty arrests, physical attacks, and serious injuries, John Lewis remained a devoted advocate of the philosophy of nonviolence. He is the author of his autobiography, Walking with the Wind: A Memoir of a Movement, and is the recipient of numerous awards from national and international institutions, including the Lincoln Medal; the John F. Kennedy “Profile in Courage” Lifetime Achievement Award (the only one of its kind ever awarded); the NAACP Spingarn Medal; and the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honor, among many others.

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Here lies Jim Crow: Civil rights in Maryland

 By C. Fraser Smith

Though he lived throughout much of the South—and even worked his way into parts of the North for a time—Jim Crow was conceived and buried in Maryland. From Chief Justice Roger Brooke Taney’s infamous decision in the Dred Scott case to Thurgood Marshall’s eloquent and effective work on Brown v. Board of Education, the battle for black equality is very much the story of Free State women and men. Here, Baltimore Sun columnist C. Fraser Smith recounts that tale through the stories, words, and deeds of famous, infamous, and little-known Marylanders. He traces the roots of Jim Crow laws from Dred Scott to Plessy v. Ferguson and describes the parallel and opposite early efforts of those who struggled to establish freedom and basic rights for African Americans.

Following the historical trail of evidence, Smith relates latter-day examples of Maryland residents who trod those same steps, from the thrice-failed attempt to deny black people the vote in the early twentieth century to nascent demonstrations for open access to lunch counters, movie theaters, stores, golf courses, and other public and private institutions—struggles that occurred decades before the now-celebrated historical figures strode onto the national civil rights scene.

Smith’s lively account includes the grand themes and the state’s major players in the movement—Frederick Douglass, Harriett Tubman, Thurgood Marshall, and Lillie May Jackson, among others.—and also tells the story of the struggle via several of Maryland’s important but relatively unknown men and women—such as Gloria Richardson, John Prentiss Poe, William L. “Little Willie” Adams, and Walter Sondheim—who prepared Jim Crow’s grave and waited for the nation to deliver the body.—Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008


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Lift Every Voice and Sing

A Celebration of the Negro National Anthem; 100 Years, 100 Voices

Edited by Julian Bond and Sondra K. Wilson

Pasted into Bibles, schoolbooks, and hearts, “Lift Every Voice and Sing,” written by J. Rosamond Johnson and James Weldon Johnson in 1900, has become one of the most beloved songs in the African American community—taught for years in schools, churches, and civic organizations. Adopted by the NAACP as its official song in the 1920s and sung throughout the civil rights movement, it is still heard today at gatherings across America. James Weldon Johnson’s lyrics pay homage to a history of struggle but never waver from a sense of optimism for the future—”facing the rising sun of our new day begun, let us march on till victory is won.” Its message of hope and strength has made “Lift Every Voice and Sing” a source of inspiration for generations.

In celebration of the song’s centennial, Julian Bond and Sondra Kathryn Wilson have collected one hundred essays by artists, educators, politicians, and activists reflecting on their personal experiences with the song. Also featuring photos from historical archives, Lift Every Voice and Sing is a moving illustration of the African American experience in the past century. With contributors including John Hope Franklin, Jesse Jackson, Maya Angelou, Norman Lear, Maxine Waters, and Percy Sutton, this volume is a personal tribute to the enduring power of an anthem. “Lift Every Voice and Sing” has touched the hearts of many who have heard it because its true aim, as Harry Belafonte explains, “isn’t just to show life as it is but to show life as it should be.”

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Faces At The Bottom of the Well: The Permanence of Racism

By Derrick Bell

In nine grim metaphorical sketches, Bell, the black former Harvard law professor who made headlines recently for his one-man protest against the school’s hiring policies, hammers home his controversial theme that white racism is a permanent, indestructible component of our society. Bell’s fantasies are often dire and apocalyptic: a new Atlantis rises from the ocean depths, sparking a mass emigration of blacks; white resistance to affirmative action softens following an explosion that kills Harvard’s president and all of the school’s black professors; intergalactic space invaders promise the U.S. President that they will clean up the environment and deliver tons of gold, but in exchange, the bartering aliens take all African Americans back to their planet. Other pieces deal with black-white romance, a taxi ride through Harlem and job discrimination.

Civil rights lawyer Geneva Crenshaw, the heroine of Bell’s And We Are Not Saved (1987), is back in some of these ominous allegories, which speak from the depths of anger and despair. Bell now teaches at New York University Law School.—Publishers Weekly

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The White Masters of the World

From The World and Africa, 1965

By W. E. B. Du Bois

W. E. B. Du Bois’ Arraignment and Indictment of White Civilization (Fletcher)

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Ancient African Nations

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Negro Digest / Black World

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The Death of Emmett Till by Bob Dylan  The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll  Only a Pawn in Their Game

Rev. Jesse Lee Peterson Thanks America for Slavery

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The Journal of Negro History issues at Project Gutenberg

The Haitian Declaration of Independence 1804  / January 1, 1804 — The Founding of Haiti 

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update 21 July 2012




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