ChickenBones: A Journal
for Literary & Artistic African-American Themes
Through the work of the commission, whites and Negroes met in conference
to discuss the Negro’s problems, a gradually increasing group on both
sides learned to know the aims and sympathies of one another.
Robert Russa Moton
The Commission on Interracial Cooperation:
The Commission on Interracial Cooperation was formed in the South in 1919.It did some remarkable work in adjusting racial contacts. It prevented some race riots and provided the Negro population of the South with parks and schools; and ameliorated the social condition of black people in that part of the country where they were most populous.
Formed in 1919 by whites and Negroes, fearful that the changed demeanor of returning Negro soldiers would provoke massacres all over the land, the commission worked intelligently, efficiently and quietly.
When the interracial body was formed, there were eighty-three lynchings; ten years later in 1929 there were ten. Aided by preponderant Southern opinion, national newspaper support, many Southern governors and by other associations, the commission made a continuous drive against mob execution. When, in 1926, the number rose from seventeen the previous year to twenty-nine, the drive was maintained with added fervor.
Through the work of the commission, whites and Negroes met in conference to discuss the Negro’s problems, a gradually increasing group on both sides learned to know the aims and sympathies of one another. It was believed that goodwill spread in a community like oil on the water.
The personnel of the commission included R.R. Moton, George Foster Peabody,Harry F. Byrd, William Louis Poteat, and John J. Eagan of Georgia.
Dr. Robert Russa Moton (1867-1940), was the principal and president (1915-1935) of Tuskegee Institute. Moton was viewed as “the sanest force seeking social and economic progress for his race.” Moton also published Finding a Way Out: An Autobiography (1921).
George Foster Peabody (18521938) was a highly successful New York investment banker and devoted much of his fortune to education and social enterprise. He stood for the most sympathetic of white cooperation.
Long concerned with the education of African-Americans, Peabody served as a trustee )1884-1930) of Hampton University, a historically black university. In the Hampton University Library he established the Peabody Collection of rare materials on African-American history, now one of the largest such collections in the country.
The CIC also included Harry F. Byrd (1887-1966), who was governor (1926-1930) of Virginia He held what some referred to as “the merciful viewpoint of the dominant Southern aristocrats to whom the Negroes long were slaves and upon whom they still are, in a large degree, dependent.” As Governor, he reorganized the state bureaucracy, reformed the tax structure and set the Commonwealth on a course of fiscal responsibility. After completing his term as Governor, Byrd served 32 years in the U.S. Senate.
William Louis Poteat (1856-1938), a native of Caswell County, North Carolina, was president (1905-1927) of Wake Forest College. As president of the Baptist State Convention of North Carolina , he defended the teaching of evolution as the “divine method of creation” and believed that this perspective was in harmony with the fundamental tenets of the Baptists.
Progressive industrialist John J. Eagan of Georgia was named the Commission’s first president. He appointed a staff of one white and one black man in each Southern state “as mediators and organizers of concerned citizens willing to work for improved race relations.” Mr. Eagen represented the Christian pity of eminent Southern churchmen for the lowly man and brother, helpless in the white man’s land.
Anson Phelps Stokes of a family which for generations has sought and striven to help the Negro was also on the commission. There were many other shining names on the list; so officered and manned, the commission’s intelligent and effective direction was assured from the beginning.
Six white Southern men met in Atlanta to discuss ways in which the South might try to avoid misunderstanding between the races. From this initial gathering, the CIC eventually included men and women, black and white, from throughout the South, whose early intention was to create state and local committees that would promote interracial cooperation at the local level.
In about 1924, when the local committees were organized, the CIC shifted its emphasis to research, publicity, and education on the achievements of blacks and on the need for cooperation between the races. Programs were established to improve schools, health facilities, and general living conditions for African Americans, to provide legal aid, to eliminate lynching, and to study segregation in the South. Early Commission work includes campaign led by sociologist and CIC Education Director Robert Eleazer to reshape the coverage of African Americans in the media.
The work of the CIC was supplemented by a copious publication program that distributed pamphlets, reports, periodicals, books, and press releases. The Commission kept abreast of developments at the local level through The Southern Frontier, its longest-running regular publication. In 1944, in response to many members wanting a broader scope for the organization, the final meeting of the CIC convened and merged with the newly-formed Southern Regional Council.
Works published by the Commission
Charles S. Johnson’s Collapse of Cotton Tenancy (1930)
Ira De A. Reid and Arthur Raper’s Sharecroppers All (1930). Their work had an impact Roosevelt administration rural policy.
Sociologist Arthur Raper’s The Tragedy of Lynching (1930)
Sources: New York Times, Sunday, March 16, 1930 / Southern Council /
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Mockingbirds at Jerusalem (poetry Manuscript)
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#10 – Covenant: A Thriller by Brandon Massey
#11 – Diary Of A Street Diva by Ashley and JaQuavis
#12 – Don’t Ever Tell by Brandon Massey
#13 – For colored girls who have considered suicide by Ntozake Shange
#14 – For the Love of Money : A Novel by Omar Tyree
#15 – Homemade Loves by J. California Cooper
#16 – The Future Has a Past: Stories by J. California Cooper
#17 – Player Haters by Carl Weber
#18 – Purple Panties: An Eroticanoir.com Anthology by Sidney Molare
#19 – Stackin’ Paper by Joy King
#20 – Children of the Street: An Inspector Darko Dawson Mystery by Kwei Quartey
#21 – The Upper Room by Mary Monroe
#22 Thug Matrimony by Wahida Clark
#23 – Thugs And The Women Who Love Them by Wahida Clark
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#12 –The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness by Michelle Alexander
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#15 – Why Men Fear Marriage: The Surprising Truth Behind Why So Many Men Can’t Commit by RM Johnson
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#17 – Brainwashed: Challenging the Myth of Black Inferiority by Tom Burrell
#18 – A New Earth: Awakening to Your Life’s Purpose by Eckhart Tolle
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Edited by Miriam DeCosta-Willis
Blacks in Hispanic Literature is a collection of fourteen essays by scholars and creative writers from Africa and the Americas. Called one of two significant critical works on Afro-Hispanic literature to appear in the late 1970s, it includes the pioneering studies of Carter G. Woodson and Valaurez B. Spratlin, published in the 1930s, as well as the essays of scholars whose interpretations were shaped by the Black aesthetic. The early essays, primarily of the Black-as-subject in Spanish medieval and Golden Age literature, provide an historical context for understanding 20th-century creative works by African-descended, Hispanophone writers, such as Cuban Nicolás Guillén and Ecuadorean poet, novelist, and scholar Adalberto Ortiz, whose essay analyzes the significance of Negritude in Latin America. This collaborative text set the tone for later conferences in which writers and scholars worked together to promote, disseminate, and critique the literature of Spanish-speaking people of African descent. . . . Cited by a literary critic in 2004 as “the seminal study in the field of Afro-Hispanic Literature . . . on which most scholars in the field ‘cut their teeth’.”
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By H. W. Brands
In Greenback Planet, acclaimed historian H. W. Brands charts the dollar’s astonishing rise to become the world’s principal currency. Telling the story with the verve of a novelist, he recounts key episodes in U.S. monetary history, from the Civil War debate over fiat money (greenbacks) to the recent worldwide financial crisis. Brands explores the dollar’s changing relations to gold and silver and to other currencies and cogently explains how America’s economic might made the dollar the fundamental standard of value in world finance. He vividly describes the 1869 Black Friday attempt to corner the gold market, banker J. P. Morgan’s bailout of the U.S. treasury, the creation of the Federal Reserve, and President Franklin Roosevelt’s handling of the bank panic of 1933. Brands shows how lessons learned (and not learned) in the Great Depression have influenced subsequent U.S. monetary policy, and how the dollar’s dominance helped transform economies in countries ranging from Germany and Japan after World War II to Russia and China today. He concludes with a sobering dissection of the 2008 world financial debacle, which exposed the power–and the enormous risks–of the dollar’s worldwide reign. The Economy
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From The World and Africa, 1965
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update 15 December 2011