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This work is a major contribution to the study of African Diaspora as it relates

to globalization, policy planning, and international relations

with developing and impoverished nations.



Lloyd D. McCarthy, In-Dependence from Bondage: Claude McKay and Michael Manley: Defying the Ideological Clash and Policy Gaps in African Diaspora Relations. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2007.

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In-Dependence from Bondage

Claude McKay and Michael Manley

Defying the Ideological Clash and Policy Gaps in African Diaspora Relations

By Lloyd D. McCarthy



 In-Dependence from Bondage is a compilation of the world views of the well known Poet, Claude McKay, and the world renowned Afro-Caribbean Socialist, Michel Manley. Both men, although of different generations, are known for their dedication to social change as it relates to the exploitation of the peoples of African descent in the Western hemisphere. Claude McKay’s poetry was one of the great forces in bringing about what is often called the Negro Literary Renaissance.

Over a period of nearly four centuries approximately 4,000,000 Africans were transported to North America and the Caribbean Islands as the results of slave trading. Scattered, dispersed, and separated from their family and culture, these peoples persevered to maintain their traditions, religion, language, and folklore. Lloyd McCarthy, in this book, focuses primarily on the Jamaican perspective; however, it is relevant to the social, political, and economic conditions everywhere. I found the poetry of Claude McKay thought-provoking and enlightening on the African Diaspora and the plight of these exploited peoples.

McCarthy successfully illustrates the impetus, impact and corrective tactics currently being considered which are central to combating white racism, classicism, and Western imperialism. McCarthy gives the reader a definitive compilation of the writings of Claude McKay and Michael Manley. He has analyzed their works using references from dozens of authors and their interpretations of the ideological clash and policy gaps in African Diaspora relations. His research is well documented with complete and thorough endnotes.

McCarthy also is an Afro-Jamaican, and instills the influence of his personal history and heritage in his writing. He reveals his own empathy for the peasants and the working-class outlook, and the political perspectives that McKay and Manley expressed.

This work is a major contribution to the study of African Diaspora as it relates to globalization, policy planning, and international relations with developing and impoverished nations. McCarthy also presents valuable insight into how literature, biographical narrative, and intellectual history are interconnected with politics. The book is a wake up call to the peoples and nations of the African Diaspora to find collective solutions to survive globalization.

In-Dependence from Bondageholds promise of becoming the guidebook or blueprint for the liberation movement and should be read by our Washington politicians as well as all New World Africans.—Richard R. Blake, Reader Views (2/07)

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In-Dependence is an important presentation that is scholarly offered as viewed through the eyes of two important social change agents.  Both Claude McKay and Michael Manley provided leadership and insightful meaning to the exploitation of peoples of African descent in the Western Hemisphere.  While the book focuses primarily upon the Jamaican context, the book is rich in its relevance to the social, political, and economic situation of the African Diaspora everywhere.  The author effectively integrates history and currency in exploring and describing the motivations, impacts, and proposed corrective strategies that are central to combating white racism, classism, and western imperialism.—William M. Harris, Sr., FAICP, PhD, Martin Luther King, Jr. Visiting Professor Department of Urban Studies and Planning, School of Architecture and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139

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McCarthy’s work is methodologically interdisciplinary in that it explores the political implications of biographical narrative as it intersects with intellectual history.  It is also interdisciplinary by virtue of the persons McCarthy examines; McKay was an artist whose life was one of expanding political awareness and Manley was a the head-of-state  whose triumphs and tragedies on the international political stage bring to mind classical Greek drama. “Too often production of knowledge about the African Diaspora entails the accretion of cultural-historical pastiches i.e. the Afro-American story, the Afro-Columbian story, the, the Guyana story etc.   McCarthy’s book  avoids such over particularization by not only exploring African Diaspora experiences in North America and in the Caribbean, but also by exploring the lives of two Jamaicans living in the respective settings,  who address the African Diaspora in global terms that both embrace and transcend local issues.—Deidre Crumbley, PhD, Professor, Interdisciplinary Studies Division, North Carolina State University

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In-Dependence from Bondage illuminates the historical philosophies and ideologies of Claude McKay and Mr. Michael Manley, both of whom had familial ties to Jamaica. Your work is an extraordinary researched history lesson for the reader and a work that challenges the reader to use higher level thinking and critical analysis. Your writing draws us into the drama of the lives of these two men. At the same time, you have given even greater meaning and value to the lives of all those Afrikans who suffered, were brutalized, and died under colonialism, while their resources were plundered in order for europeans to build wealthy empires in europe and the new world. Drawing together and chronicling the lives of both men, McKay and Mr. Manley, was a well conceived idea that was synthesized in the presentation of  this brilliant manuscript. This work ought to be a required textbook for the university.’

—Dr. Kamau Kambon,  Former Assistant Professor of Education, Former Special Adjunct Professor of Africana Studies,  Co-Managing Director of BlackNificent Books and More  

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgment xi Introduction 1

Chapter One: Bondage: Plunder and Resistance—The Legacy That Shaped Their Common Outlook          7           • Spanish Elites and Genocide           7           • “Nanny” Resisting Cromwell’s Men          9           • Blacks and Browns in the Struggle Against Colonialism          12           • From the English Elites to the American Elites          16

Chapter Two: Claude McKay: From Colonial Poet to Militant Internationalist          25           • Wha Cultural Resistance without “Hannah Ann Elizabeth McKay”?          25           • Crysstal Eastman, The Liberator and Workers Against Workers          31           • Syllvia Pankurst’s Workers’ Dreadnought and the Militant Internationalist          33           • Reaction to Stalinism and U.S. Communist Party Racism          39           • From the International to the Personal          41

Chapter Three: Michael Manley: From “Joshua” to Globalist          49           • What Humanism Without Edna Manley          49           • Progressive Women and Michael Manley’s Globalism          50           • Manley’s Regional Consciousness           52           • Manley’s Global Awareness and North-South Reality          55           • Manley’s Understanding of U.S. Relations           57           • From the Global to the Personal: Women and Myths          62

Chapter Four: McKay’s Worldview for African Diaspora Development          71           • The Foundations of McKay’s Worldview: Struggle for Philosophy and Strategy          71           • McKay on “Fifths”          73           • Invoke “Obi,” the Uncompromised Ancestral Spirit          75           • Race Struggle Is Also the Class Struggle for Black Workers          79           • Black Consciousness Is Class Consciousness          81           • Media Democracy and the African Diaspora          88           • “Anglophile” Ideology and the Struggle of the African Diaspora          89

Chapter Five: Manley’s Worldview for African Diaspora Development          97           • The Foundations of Manley’s Globalist Worldview          97           • Neocolonialism: “One Shilling a Ton”          100           • Moving “Out of Babylon”          102           • Manley’s Amendment: The Race Struggle Is the Class Struggle          109           • South-South and the African Diaspora are the Proletarian Nations          111           • Man On Northern Elites’ New World Order and South-South Crisis          114           • South-South—African Diaspora and Proletarian Nations, Unite!          116

Chapter Six: “In-Dependence” and Reformist Views          127           • “A ‘New’ Decree”: Globalization          128           • “To the Ancient Gods of Greed”: Globalization and Economic Growth          133           • “Offered Up as Sacrifice”: Globalization and Life Expectancy          137           • “Oh, We Who Deign to Live But Will Not Dare”: Globalization and Human Development          142           • “The White World’s Burden Must Forever Bear”: Debt           • Reformist Views: “Democratic Deficit”          147

Conclusion          165

Works Cited          173

Index          187

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Lloyd McCarthy is the author of the book “In-Dependence” From Bondage. He is also a practicing urban and regional planning consultant. He holds a Master of Arts degree from North Carolina State University, with a focus on political science and African Diaspora Affairs. He received his Bachelors degree in Planning from the University of Virginia, where he was awarded the Virginia Citizen’s Planning Association, “Outstanding Student Award” in 1991. In 1988, he received the United States Agency for International Development, Presidential Training Initiative for the Island Caribbean Award. While at North Carolina State University, he served as Teaching Assistant for three courses in Africana Studies.

Lloyd is a former Jamaican public servant, having held the titles of Director of Land Policy in the Office of the Prime Minister and Senior Director of Land Administration in the Ministry of Environment & Housing.  While serving in this public capacity, his personal and professional orientation was towards instituting policies and programs to empower low-income and dispossessed communities. 

In 1997, Lloyd was instrumental in initiating the preparation of an involuntary resettlement policy for Jamaica to protect low income people from being displaced without compensation by Jamaican infrastructure development projects. He also co-edited a publication on Involuntary Resettlement: Experiences from Developing Countries. The result of Lloyd’s academic development and experience is expressed in a uniquely honest and insightful perspective on the impact of arts and politics on African Diaspora affairs through the scholarly works of two legendary Afro-Caribbeans of the 20th century—Claude McKay and Michael Manley. Lloyd currently resides in Raleigh, NC with his wife (Schatzi) and two sons (Jela-ni and Jamar).

posted 26 February 2007

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Cuba An African Odyssey is the previously untold story of Cuba’s support for African revolutions.

Cuba: An African Odyssey is the story of the Cold War told through the prism of its least known arena: Africa. It is the untold story of Cuba’s support for African revolutions.  It is the story of men like Patrice Lumumba, Amilcar Cabral, Agosthino Neto and of course Che Guevara who have become icons, mythical figures whose names are now synonymous with the word revolution. This is the story of how these men, caught between capitalism and communism, strove to create a third bloc that would assert the simple principle of national independence.  It is the story of a whole dimension of world politics during the last half of the 20th century, which has been hidden behind the facade of a simplistic understanding of superpower conflict.

Cuba: An African Odyssey will tell the inside story of only three of these Cuban escapades. We will start with the Congo where Che Guevara personally spent seven months fighting with the Pro-Lumumbist rebellion in the jungle of Eastern Congo. Then to Guinea Bissau where Amilcar Cabral used the technical support of Cuban advisors to bleed the Portuguese colonial war machine thus toppling the regime in Europe. Finally, Angola where in total 380,000 Cuban soldiers fought during the 27 years of civil war. The Cuban withdrawal from Angola was finally bartered against Namibia’s independence. With Namibia’s independence came the fall of Apartheid… the last vestige of colonialism on the African continent.

Cuba: An African Odyssey unravels episodes of the Cold War long believed to be nothing but proxy wars. From the tragicomic epic of Che Guevara in Congo to the triumph at the battle of Cuito Carnavale in Angola, this film attempts to understand the world today through the saga of these internationalists who won every battle but finally lost the war.

Credits: Written, directed and narrated by Jihan El-Tahri / Edited by Gilles Bovon / Photography by Frank-Peter Lehmann

Sound Recordists: James Baker, Graciela Barrault / Produced by Tancrède Ramonet, Benoît Juster, Jihan El-Tahri

Source: Snagfilms

*   *   *   *   *’s 25 Best Selling Books



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#20 – Children of the Street: An Inspector Darko Dawson Mystery by Kwei Quartey

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#23 – Thugs And The Women Who Love Them by Wahida Clark

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#14 – The Other Wes Moore: One Name, Two Fates by Wes Moore

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#18 – A New Earth: Awakening to Your Life’s Purpose by Eckhart Tolle

#19 – John Oliver Killens: A Life of Black Literary Activism by Keith Gilyard

#20 – Alain L. Locke: The Biography of a Philosopher by Leonard Harris

#21 – Age Ain’t Nothing but a Number: Black Women Explore Midlife by Carleen Brice

#22 – 2012 Guide to Literary Agents by Chuck Sambuchino #23 – Chicken Soup for the Prisoner’s Soul by Tom Lagana #24 – 101 Things Every Boy/Young Man of Color Should Know by LaMarr Darnell Shields

#25 – Beyond the Black Lady: Sexuality and the New African American Middle Class  by Lisa B. Thompson

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The Price of Civilization

Reawakening American Virtue and Prosperity

By Jeffrey D. Sachs

The Price of Civilization is a book that is essential reading for every American. In a forceful, impassioned, and personal voice, he offers not only a searing and incisive diagnosis of our country’s economic ills but also an urgent call for Americans to restore the virtues of fairness, honesty, and foresight as the foundations of national prosperity. Sachs finds that both political parties—and many leading economists—have missed the big picture, offering shortsighted solutions such as stimulus spending or tax cuts to address complex economic problems that require deeper solutions. Sachs argues that we have profoundly underestimated globalization’s long-term effects on our country, which create deep and largely unmet challenges with regard to jobs, incomes, poverty, and the environment. America’s single biggest economic failure, Sachs argues, is its inability to come to grips with the new global economic realities. Sachs describes a political system that has lost its ethical moorings, in which ever-rising campaign contributions and lobbying outlays overpower the voice of the citizenry. . . . Sachs offers a plan to turn the crisis around. He argues persuasively that the problem is not America’s abiding values, which remain generous and pragmatic, but the ease with which political spin and consumerism run circles around those values. He bids the reader to reclaim the virtues of good citizenship and mindfulness toward the economy and one another.

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Sister Citizen: Shame, Stereotypes, and Black Women in America

By Melissa V. Harris-Perry

According to the author, this society has historically exerted considerable pressure on black females to fit into one of a handful of stereotypes, primarily, the Mammy, the Matriarch or the Jezebel.  The selfless Mammy’s behavior is marked by a slavish devotion to white folks’ domestic concerns, often at the expense of those of her own family’s needs. By contrast, the relatively-hedonistic Jezebel is a sexually-insatiable temptress. And the Matriarch is generally thought of as an emasculating figure who denigrates black men, ala the characters Sapphire and Aunt Esther on the television shows Amos and Andy and Sanford and Son, respectively.     

Professor Perry points out how the propagation of these harmful myths have served the mainstream culture well. For instance, the Mammy suggests that it is almost second nature for black females to feel a maternal instinct towards Caucasian babies.

As for the source of the Jezebel, black women had no control over their own bodies during slavery given that they were being auctioned off and bred to maximize profits. Nonetheless, it was in the interest of plantation owners to propagate the lie that sisters were sluts inclined to mate indiscriminately.

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Sex at the Margins

Migration, Labour Markets and the Rescue Industry

By Laura María Agustín

This book explodes several myths: that selling sex is completely different from any other kind of work, that migrants who sell sex are passive victims and that the multitude of people out to save them are without self-interest. Laura Agustín makes a passionate case against these stereotypes, arguing that the label ‘trafficked’ does not accurately describe migrants’ lives and that the ‘rescue industry’ serves to disempower them. Based on extensive research amongst both migrants who sell sex and social helpers, Sex at the Margins provides a radically different analysis. Frequently, says Agustin, migrants make rational choices to travel and work in the sex industry, and although they are treated like a marginalised group they form part of the dynamic global economy. Both powerful and controversial, this book is essential reading for all those who want to understand the increasingly important relationship between sex markets, migration and the desire for social justice. “Sex at the Margins rips apart distinctions between migrants, service work and sexual labour and reveals the utter complexity of the contemporary sex industry. This book is set to be a trailblazer in the study of sexuality.”—Lisa Adkins, University of London

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The White Masters of the World

From The World and Africa, 1965

By W. E. B. Du Bois

W. E. B. Du Bois’ Arraignment and Indictment of White Civilization (Fletcher)

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Ancient African Nations

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The Death of Emmett Till by Bob Dylan  The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll  Only a Pawn in Their Game

Rev. Jesse Lee Peterson Thanks America for Slavery

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The Journal of Negro History issues at Project Gutenberg

The Haitian Declaration of Independence 1804  / January 1, 1804 — The Founding of Haiti 

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update 11 March 2012




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Related files:  Reconstructing the Nation in Africa  Jamaica Upheaval  In-Dependence from Bondage  Claude McKay Bio  Black Consciousness Poet—Claude McKay   Manley’s Legacy

The Life and Times of Black Poet Claude McKay