ChickenBones: A Journal
for Literary & Artistic African-American Themes
Historically Black Colleges and Universities
photo left: Daniel Alexander Payne
Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) are institutions of higher education in the United States that were established before 1964 with the intention of serving the black community.
There are 105 historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) in the United States today, including public and private, two-year and four-year institutions, medical schools and community colleges. All are or were in the former slave states and territories of the U.S. except for Central State University (Ohio), Cheyney University of Pennsylvania, Lewis College of Business (Detroit, Michigan), Lincoln University (Pennsylvania), Wilberforce University (Ohio), and now-defunct Western University (Kansas). Some closed during the 20th century due to competition
Most HBCUs were established after the American Civil War. However, Cheyney University of Pennsylvania, established in 1837, Lincoln University (Pennsylvania), established in 1854, and Wilberforce University, established in 1856, were established for blacks prior to the American Civil War.
The Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended, defines a part B institution as: “…any historically black college or university that was established prior to 1964, whose principal mission was, and is, the education of black Americans, and that is accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting agency or association determined by the Secretary [of Education] to be a reliable authority as to the quality of training offered or is, according to such an agency or association, making reasonable progress toward accreditation.” Part B of the 1965 Act provides for direct federal aid to Part B institutions.Wikipedia
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Daniel Alexander Paynephoto abovewas a United States clergyman, educator, college administrator and author. He became a bishop in the African Methodist Episcopal Church and was a major shaper of it in the 19th century. He was one of the founders of Wilberforce University in Ohio. In 1863 he became its first president, and the first African-American president of a college in the United States.Wikipedia
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Established before 1964 with the Intention of Serving the Black Community
The Black College and University Act defined a historically Black college and university (HBCU) as one that existed before 1964 with a historic and contemporary mission of educating Blacks while being open to all. There are 103 HBCUs, located mainly in the Southeastern United States, the District of Columbia and the Virgin Islands.
HBCUs are responsible for 22 percent of current bachelors degrees granted to Blacks. Among Blacks, 40 percent of all congressmen, 12.5 percent of CEOs, 40 percent of engineers, 50 percent of professors at non-HBCUs, 50 percent of lawyers and 80 percent of judges are HBCU graduates.
The top 21 undergraduate producers of Blacks with doctoral degrees are HBCUs. W.E.B. Dubois (Wilberforce), Ralph Ellison (Tuskegee), Martin Luther King, Jr. (Morehouse), Thurgood Marshall (Lincoln), Ruth Simmons (Dillard), and Oprah Winfrey (Tennessee State) headline a long list of famous HBCU alumni. Below is a complete list of HBCUs.Lists of Historical Black Colleges and Universities
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Racism: A History, the 2007 BBC 3-part documentary explores the impact of racism on a global scale. It was part of the season of programs on the BBC marking the 200th anniversary of the abolition of slavery in the British Empire. It’s divided into 3 parts.
The first, The Colour of Money . . . Racism: A History 1/3
Begins the series by assessing the implications of the relationship between Europe, Africa and the Americas in the 15th century. It considers how racist ideas and practices developed in key religious and secular institutions, and how they showed up in writings by European philosophers Aristotle and Immanuel Kant.
The second, Fatal Impact . . . Racism: A History  – 2/3
Examines the idea of scientific racism, an ideology invented during the 19th century that drew on now discredited practices such as phrenology and provided an ideological justification for racism and slavery. The episode shows how these theories ultimately led to eugenics and Nazi racial policies of the master race.
And the 3rd, A Savage Legacy . . . Racism: A History  – 3/3
Examines the impact of racism in the 20th century. By 1900 European colonial expansion had reached deep into the heart of Africa. Under the rule of King Leopold II, the Belgian Congo was turned into a vast rubber plantation. Men, women and children who failed to gather their latex quotas would have their limbs dismembered. The country became the scene of one of the century’s greatest racial genocides, as an estimated 10 million Africans perished under colonial rule.
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Undergraduate Library to Undergo Major Renovation and Library System Receives Research UpgradesRachel Mann7 August 2012Over the next year, the Undergraduate Library will undergo an extensive makeover beginning this month. When the library reopens in Fall 2013, it will boast several upgrades, including a café, state-of-the-art technology, and research services, redesigned study and collaboration spaces and increased accessibility to book collections and resources on and off campus.
The Undergraduate Library will undergo changes that foster research and collaboration by both students and faculty, said Howard Dodson, director of the Howard University Library System and Moorland-Spingarn Research Center.
Dodson added, The new design will include new group study rooms, complete with smart boards, white boards, as well as updated Wi-Fi capabilities, and new computers to name a few.
During renovations, Founders Library will become the provider for all undergraduate and graduate library services. This is part of a phased facility renewal initiative, a multi-million dollar campus-wide renovation project that began in 2011. Access to resources will also become more user friendly with Genius Bar inspired service desks, which will be installed throughout the library and manned by librarians and staff to help visitors navigate the systems and find answers to their research needs. This semester, Howard students will immediately begin to enjoy an improved ALADIN catalog system, which provides access to resources at Howard and the eight-member universities in the Washington Research Library Consortium. This makes searching for, requesting and retrieving library materials faster and easier. Howard joined the Consortium in January 2012 and has since increased its title offerings from 2.5 million to 11 million titles through the network.
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How Black Colleges Are Turning White and Keeping Their Historically Black Colleges and Universities Status: The Ethnic Cleansing of African Americans in the Age of Obama (Part 1 of 3)By Jahi Issa, Ph.D.Although the Higher Education Act of 1965 clearly states that an HBCU is a school whose principal mission was, and is, the education of black Americans, economist and scholar at American Enterprise Institute, Richard Vedder, reminds us that there is a trend being shaped where as HBCUs who formally had an African American majority student and faculty body, and now have White majority populations, still receive federal funding geared for African Americans. These two schools are Bluefield State College and West Virginia State University. According to a May 19, 2000 CNN report, White enrollment at HBCUs is on the rise. Other schools such as Kentucky State University, Elizabeth City State University and Delaware State University are only a few schools that have a growing White and non-African American student and faculty population. Furthermore, according to an August 17, 2011 Wall Street Journal article called Recruiters at Black Colleges Break From Tradition, HBCUs such as Tennessee State University, Delaware State University and Paul Quinn College are cited as no longer focusing exclusively on recruiting African Americans. The author of the article points out that Tennessee State Universitys Black enrollment has reduced to around 70 %, while Paul Quinn College Black enrollment has been predicted to fall from 94% to 85% for the Fall 2011 academic year. . . .
In other words, if the African American faculty enrollment at HBCUs is low, African American students tend not to attend HBCUs. When this occurs, is an HBCU still a HBCU? In other words, can you have a HBCU without Black students and faculty? This is exactly the issue that American Enterprise Institute scholar Richard Vedder was raising in his essay in the Chronicle of Higher Learning. Voxunion
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A Meaningful Life: I Chose to Teach at HBCUs (Jerry Ward)
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Create Dangerously (Camus)
Why South Sudan Wants Obama to Lose (Badru Mulumba)
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Theodora Roosevelt Boyd
Former Howard Chair of the Department of Romance Languages
Theodora Boyd was born to James and Jeannette Boyd on June 6, 1906 in Charleston. Her parents found out early on that their daughter was an extremely gifted child. She was educated in the public schools of Newton, Mass., and by 1923, Theodora had been afforded an opportunity few African-Americans would be able to partake in, and she seized it with fervor and great determination. . . . . After earning a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1927, Theodora began a teaching career that would span 50 years starting at Clark College in Atlanta, Ga. Spending two years there, she continued on at Radcliffe, earning a Master’s in 1930. She headed back out into the teaching world, this time, to Texas Teacher’s College in Tyler, Texas. . . . While the Great Depression had crippled the nation, after one year in Texas, Theodora continued to find work, and jumped at an opportunity to teach physical education and French at St. Augustine’s College in Raleigh, N.C.
Also during this time, she sought her Doctorate at Radcliffe and became head of the French department at St. Augustine’s. From 1931 to 1935, she spent her summers attending Harvard University summer school, but it was not until 1943 that she received her Ph.D, Phi Beta Kappa. She also went on to earn a Certificate de La Langue Française, de Civilization Française from the Sorbonne (The University of Paris). . . . Following her stint at St. Augustine’s, she taught at a number of places, including, Alabama State Teacher’s College, Delaware State College, and St. Paul’s College before her final stop, Howard University. It was there in 1961 Theodora taught French and Humanities and by 1969, she became the first female to serve as Chair of the Department of Romance Languages at Howard. . . .
She took on the challenge of being the first woman to head up Howard’s Department of Romance Languages, succeeding internationally renowned scholars like Dr. Valaurez Spratlin and Dr. Mercer Cook. Spratlin is noted for being the first African-American to earn a doctorate in Spanish as well as serving as Chair at Howard from 1927-1961.
Cook, who immediately preceded Theodora, was appointed ambassador to the Republic of Niger by President Kennedy in 1961. He held that post for three years. In 1970, Theodora sent a letter to DeCosta-Willis, whose father Dr. Frank DeCosta, Sr., she had known quite well. DeCosta-Willis was teaching at Memphis State University in Memphis, Tenn., at the time and was the first African-American to teach there in 1967. She was there when Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., was assassinated in 1968. Theodora had contacted DeCosta-Willis to see if she would be interested in joining her at Howard. She accepted the offer and fondly remembered her time there.. . . . When 68-year-old Theodora stepped down from her role as Chair in 1974, she left the door wide open for the 40-year-old DeCosta-Willis to follow her lead. Theodora stayed on board as a part-time professor until 1976. Theodora never married or had any children, and by 1977, her health had deteriorated. She moved back to her family’s home in South Carolina and was cared for by relatives until she died on December 26.Source: Ivy50
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HBCU Blues: America’s: Historically Black Colleges and Universities in the 21st CenturyDella Britton29 August 2011Perhaps even more damning than the dismal graduation rate was the fact that the national college graduation rate for black students generally was four points higher than for students at HBCUs, challenging the deeply held notion that HBCUs are better suited to help black students finish school. Add to this complaints shared by recent graduates of HBCUS and HBCU faculty and staff about everything from excessive teaching loads, to antiquated classrooms and limited technology, and one can’t help but ask the question should the black community be addressing this problem more aggressively?
The best of the HBCUs can compete on every objective level. In 2011, Howard University, which was once referred to as “The Black Harvard” and which consistently ranked in the nation’s top 100 universities, still managed a respectable rank of #104 . Atlanta-based Spelman College, meanwhile, topped all HBCU’s coming in at #59 among National Liberal Arts Colleges according to U.S. News and World Report. Morehouse, Tuskegee and Hampton also mustered respectable rankings, but then the drop off from these elite schools to the vast majority is startling. After the top 12 most remained unranked or were listed as “rank unpublished.”HuffingtonPost
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The School of Architecture and Planning at Morgan is not a department, but a school with five departmentsBS in Architecture + Environmental Design, BS in Construction Management, Master of Architecture, Master of City + Regional Planning, Master of Landscape Architecture. Its growing and it has close to 400 students. It also has three graduate programs. The only other architecture program in the state is at College Park. The school will move into its new building this coming Fall. I seriously doubt if the current library has either books and/or other resources to support the programs offered in the school. It would make sense probably to have a joint library between Architecture and Engineering. Morgan’s enrolment in Engineering is very large. (23 April 2012)School_of_Architecture_and_Planning
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Dr. Martin D. Jenkins, PhD (September 4, 19041978) was an African American educator, known for his pioneering work in the field of education. He graduated with a B.S. in Engineering in 1925,from Howard University. Upon earning an engineering degree from Howard, Jenkins became a partner with his father in a Terre Haute highway contracting business while taking classes at State Normal. He secured an A.B. degree in Education from Indiana State in 1931 and, on September 7, 1927, wed Elizabeth Lacy.
After teaching briefly at Virginia State College (now Virginia State University), Jenkins began graduate work at Northwestern University under Terre Haute native and Indiana State alumnus, Paul A. Witty. He earned a masters in 1933 and a doctorate in education in 1935.
His dissertation was a socio-psychological study of African-American children of superior intelligence.Before becoming President of Morgan State College of Baltimore in 1948, Jenkins was registrar and professor of education at North Carolina A&T (19351937); dean of instruction at Cheyney State (Pa.) Teachers College (now Cheyney University) (19371938); and professor of education, Howard University (19381948).
A diplomate of the American Board of Examiners in Clinical Psychology, Martin published more than 80 scholarly articles and monographs and lectured on topics related to his expertise throughout the world. He also served on several presidential commissions, councils and task forces.
Honored as a Distinguished Alumnus by Indiana State in 1964, Jenkins was awarded honorary doctorates by the University of Liberia, Delaware State College, Howard University and Johns Hopkins University, among others. After his retirement as president of Morgan State in 1970, he became the director of the Office of Urban Affairs for the American Council of Education.Wikipedia
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Maryland HBCUs Sue State For Racial Discrimination Over FundingBy Alexis Garrett Stodghill16 May 2011A civil rights group is suing Marylands Higher Education Commission for allegedly discriminating against the states four historically black colleges. The plaintiffs argue that Morgan State University, Coppin State University, Bowie State University and the University of Maryland Eastern Shore have underdeveloped programs because black schools are funded in a manner that puts predominately white schools at a huge advantage. Administrators at Maryland HBCUs believe their institutions are deprived of the tools needed to create competitive curricula, while being forced to wait much longer to receive appropriated monies.
The results are outdated infrastructures and inferior courses leading to low student retention. The Baltimore Sun reports that: Parity among higher-education institutions has been an issue in the state and country for centuries, and the lawsuit recounts 200 years of [racist] history[.] . . . No infusion of cash can compensate for the tremendous challenges HBCUs face on many fronts. These complex tests can only be addressed by the creativity of their leaders. Hopefully the situation of Marylands HBCUs will stimulate black college administrators nationwide to start an internal crusade to keep these organizations alive.NewsOne
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Harry A. Cole, 2218 Madison Ave, Republican, Baltimore 4th; born in Washington, D. C., January 1, 1921. He attended the public schools of Baltimore, Morgan State College, graduating in 1943, and the University of Maryland Law School, graduating in 1949. Attorney. Member of the Maryland Bar. Formerly Justice of the Peace of Baltimore City and Assistant Attorney General of Maryland. From 1943 to 1946 he served as 1st Lieutenant, Quartermaster Corps. Secretary Monumental City Bar Association. Member, Y.M.C.A., Urban League, NAACP. First African American elected to the Senate in 1954.
He was admitted to the Maryland Bar in 1949. Associate Judge, Municipal Court of Baltimore City, 1967. Associate Judge, Supreme Bench of Baltimore City (now Circuit Court), 1967-77. Associate Judge, Maryland Court of Appeals, 1977-91.Cole married the former Doris Freeland in 1958; three daughters: Susan, Harriette and Stephanie. He died of pneumonia at Church Home, Baltimore, Maryland on February 14, 1999. Wikipedia
Judge Cole had an extensive collection of music that ranged from Count Basie to Frank Sinatra. He also loved to dance, said his wife of 41 years, the former Doris Freeland.”He thought everyone ought to be able to dance,” she said. “We would often dance the night away.”In retirement, he used his legal skills as head of a commission that recommended revisions in the Baltimore City charter.DailyPress
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Autumn Leaves (Short Story by Sam Greenlee)
Lamont Johnson, Director, Dies at 88 (Dennis Hevesi)
Capitol Hill in Black and White By Robert Parker with Richard Rashke
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Victor Ukpolo, Ph.D., a native of Nigeria, was officially appointed chancellor of Southern University at New Orleans on January 7, 2006 by the Southern University Systems Board of Supervisors.
Dr. Victor Ukpolo is a graduate of the University of Maryland in College Park, Md., and received master of arts and doctorate of philosophy degrees from The American University, Washington D.C. A native of Nigeria, Ukpolo started work in America as a dish washer and taxi driver to put himself through school.BlackScholarsIndex
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Alma Woodsey Thomas (September 22, 1891 February 24, 1978) was an African American Expressionist painter and art educator. Born and raised in Columbus, Georgia, Thomas moved to Washington, D.C. with her family in 1907. In 1924, she was the first graduate of Howard University‘s art department.In 1934, Thomas became the first African American woman to earn a Master of Fine Arts degree from Columbia University. She was also the first African American woman to have a solo exhibit at the Whitney Museum of American Art.Wikipedia
Thomas originally enrolled at Howard University in Washington, D.C. as a home economics major in 1921, but after studying under Prof. James V. Herring in his newly established art department, she earned a B. S. degree in Fine Arts in 1924. . . . The Alma Thomas papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship.AAA
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Several Africans who studied at HBCUs went on to lead their nations post-independence. They include Kwame Nkrumah (Ghana) Lincoln University and University of Pennyslvania; Hastings Kamuzu Banda (Malawi) Wilberforce (Academy) University and Meharry Medical College; Benjamin Nnamdi Azikiwe (Nigeria) Howard University, Lincoln University and University of Pennsylvania
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The concept of Southern University was put forth by P. B. S. Pinchback, T. T. Allain, Erick J Gilmore and Henry Demas Anthony Lawless as an institution “for the education of persons of color” at the 1879 Louisiana State Constitutional Convention. In April 1880, the Louisiana General Assembly chartered Southern University, originally located in New Orleans. Southern opened its doors on March 7, 1881 (1881-03-07) with twelve students.
One of the original locations of the early campus was the former Israel Sinai Temple on Calliope Street, between St. Charles and Camp streets in New Orleans. Southern became a land grant school in 1890, and an Agricultural and Mechanical department was established.
Because of continued growth and a lack of land for expansion, the university relocated to what was then Scotlandville, along Scott’s Bluff facing the Mississippi River in 1914. It is included as a destination of the Louisiana African American Heritage Trail. Southern University is the best institution for African American students.
The new president and first president of what is now known as Southern University at Baton Rouge was Dr. Joseph Samuel Clark. Clark, an outstanding citizen in the Baton Rouge African American community, presided over Baton Rouge College and the Louisiana Colored Teachers Association. The Louisiana Constitutional Convention of 1921 authorized the reorganization and expansion of Southern University; and Legislative Act 100 of 1922 provided that the institution be reorganized under the control of the State Board of Education. Clark presided over Southern University during a transition period for the institution. The student enrolment grew from forty-seven students to 500 students and many of the school’s early buildings were built during this time.Wikipedia
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By William Watkins
William H. Watkins is subtle in his story of the white architects who developed Black education beginning in 1865, just at the end of the Civil War. Watkins shocks you with his scientific racism platform that he explains presented human difference as the rational for inequality and that it can be understood as an ideological and political issue (pg. 39). The reader senses a calm attitude about the author as he speaks of the philanthropists, beginning with John D. Rockefeller, Sr, who was most concerned about shaping the new industrial social order (pg. 133) than he was for providing a useful education. The Rockefeller group demonstrated how gift giving could shape education and public policy (pg. 134).
In their support of Black education, by 1964, the General Education Board (GEB) spent more than $3.2 million dollars in gifts to support Black education. This captivating book begins with a foreword written by Robin D.G. Kelley who reflects that he learned one lesson from Watkins, If we are to create new models of pedagogy and intellectual work and become architects of our own education, then we cannot simply repair the structures that have been passed down to us. We need to dismantle the old architecture so that we might begin anew (pg. xiii). Why dont the school reformers who mandate educational laws experience such an awakening?Review by AC Snow
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William Sanders Scarborough is a story of courage, dignity and devotion to the life of the mind set against the larger background of the Civil War, Emancipation, Reconstruction, and Jim Crowism. He blazed his own path in the academy becoming the first black member of the Modern Language Association which set up a prize in his honor in 2001 and the third black member of the American Philological Association. This membership was life long, 44 years with over 20 papers presented at APA meetings many of which he describes. He was also member of the American Negro Academy and the NAACP. As President of Wilberforce University he directed the school through World War I and handled the concomitant problems with the segregated armed forces. He knew all the early African Americans who had come out of West Point men including Flipper, Young, and Davis.
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to Save Its $30 Million Stieglitz Collection Sale
The Art of the Deal by Christine Kreyling
Even after Chancellor Ellen Hobbs Lyle’s ruling in Chancery Court last Friday, the fate of Fisk University’s Alfred Stieglitz Collection of Modern American and European Art is no clearer than it was before. But this latest round of legal squabbling over the multimillion-dollar modern-art collection has introduced a new wrinkle: the question of whether work by white artists has any value beyond financial worth to a historically black university whose cultural mission, through the years, has been to further black identity.
Last week was the latest cliffhanger in a serialized saga. With Fisk petitioning to sell a half-interest in the collection to an eager buyer, the Crystal Bridges Museum-in-the-making in neighboring Arkansas, Chancellor Lyle ruled that she could not agree to the terms. At the same time, she told Tennessee Attorney General Bob Cooper, who’s leading the state’s legal challenge, that he has two options: put up an alternative plan, or shut up and let the collection go.
Lyle agreed that Fisk’s chronic shortfallsregularly $2 million per yearmake it impractical for the school to display and maintain the collection. Fisk spends an average of $131,000 annually on the Stieglitz Collection, in compliance with conditions imposed by artist Georgia O’Keeffe in 1949. That was the year she donated the art from the estate of her late husband, the famed photographer and collector Alfred Stieglitz.
Fisk’s solution to its financial woes, subject to the court’s approval, is articulated in a 2007 agreement between the university and Crystal Bridges, founded by Wal-Mart heiress Alice Walton. The basic terms: For $30 million, Fisk would sell a half-interest in the 101 works in the Stieglitz Collection, valued at $74 million in 2007. The collection would rotate between Fisk’s campus and the 120,000-square-foot Crystal Bridges facility, currently under construction in Bentonville, Ark.
But Lyle ruled that certain provisions in the agreement “override, thwart and dilute the purpose for which Ms. O’Keeffe made the gift.” O’Keeffe’s purpose, as established by the Tennessee Court of Appeals during a previous legal skirmish in 2009, was “to enable the publicin Nashville and the Southto have the opportunity to study the Collection in order to promote the general study of art.”
Therein lies the rub. The deal’s terms, Lyle ruled, “have the potential to divest Fisk of more than a 50 percent ownership in the Collection.” For example, both institutions agree to share the cost of the collection’s care. If Fisk can’t pay and breaches the agreement, Crystal Bridges could gain title to more or ultimately all of the collection. And there goes O’Keeffe’s purposethe general study of the collection in Nashville.Nashville Scene
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By C. Michael Norton
Georgia OKeeffe received word in 1946 in New Mexico that her husband, Alfred Stieglitz, had suffered a serious stroke in New York. Catching the next airplane from Albuquerque, she was by his side when he died on July 13. No one at Fisk University in Nashville knew then that Stieglitzs death had put into motion a chain of events which would lead to Fisks receiving, in 1949, an art collection considered the finest of its type anywhere in the South.
Stieglitz, one of the greatest photographers in the history of the medium, is credited with transforming photography from a method of documentation into an art form. As a premier collector and gallery owner of his time, Stieglitz encouraged and acquired art work by many young American artists, including Arthur Dove, Marsden Hartley, Georgia OKeeffe, Charles Demuth, and John Marin. He is also credited with mounting the first exhibition of African sculpture in the United States. OKeeffe, generally considered the most important female artist in 20th century America (a description that would have irritated her), had both a business and personal relationship with the much older Stieglitz. They married in 1924, despite the 23-year difference in their ages. . . .Prodigy
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Cooperative HBCU Archival Survey Project (CHASP), which is funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities, is an on-site survey of the HBCU archives. These materials are generally unknown to researchers because they are not listed in existing reference tools and databases. CHASP is surveying ninety-seven HBCU and is more than half completed. When CHASP surveys an archive, the team writes a description of each collection including title, inclusive dates, size, and contents. These descriptions are then sent to the NUCMC program for cataloging. In addition, the CHASP descriptions will eventually be published in a printed guide toHBCU archival and manuscript collections.
To date the NUCMC Team has cataloged 102 collections from sixteen repositories: Allen University, Arkansas Baptist College, Barber-Scotia College, Benedict College, Bennett College, Bowie State University, Claflin College Archives, Clinton Junior College, Delaware State University, Fayetteville State University, Harris-Stowe State College, Lewis College of Business, Lincoln University, Morgan State University, Paul Quinn College, and University of Maryland, Eastern Shore.Infomotions
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When CHASP surveys an archives, the team writes a description of each collection including title, inclusive dates, size, and contents. These descriptions are then sent to the National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections (NUCMC) program for cataloging in the RLG Union Catalog. http://lcweb.loc.gov/coll/nucmc. In addition, the CHASP descriptions will eventually be published in a printed guide to HBCU archival and manuscript collections.Buffalo Edu
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Dorothy Porter Wesley (1905-1995), a scholar-librarian and bibliographer was born in Warrenton, Virginia in 1905, to her father, Hayes Joseph Burnett, a physician, and her mother, Bertha Ball Burnett, a tennis champion. After receiving her A.B., from Howard University in 1928, she became the first African American woman to complete her graduate studies at Columbia University receiving a Bachelors (1931) and a Masters (1932) of Science in Library Science. Dorothy Bennett joined the library staff at Howard University in 1928, and on December 29, 1929 married James Amos Porter. In 1930 University President W. Mordecai Johnson appointed her to organize and administer a Library of Negro Life and History incorporating the 3,000 titles presented in 1914 by Jesse Moorland.
The library opened in 1933 as the Moorland Foundation. In 1946 Howard University purchased the Arthur Spingarn Collection. By the time Porter retired in 1973 the library, which was now called the Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, had over 180,000 books, pamphlets, manuscripts and other primary sources. Over 43 years, Porter had successfully created a leading modern research library that served an international community of scholars. . . . Black Past
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Historically Black Colleges and Universities
And a Spotlight on Mary McLeod Bethune, 1875-1955
Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) are colleges or universities that were established before 1964 with the intention of serving the African American community. There are more than 100 historically black colleges in the United States, located almost exclusively in the southern and eastern states.
Southern University is the largest HBCU and one of the most prestigious universities. Located in Louisiana, Southern University has campuses in Baton Rouge, New Orleans, Shreveport, the Southern University Law Center and the Southern University Agricultural and Extension Center.
Southern University has become the only HBCU system in the United States with an enrollment of over 15,000 students. The System encompasses five institutions offering two-year, four-year, graduate, professional, and doctoral degrees.
Cheyney University in Cheney, Pennsylvania has been known for graduating prominent alumni through its education and journalism departments. Cheyney, founded in 1837, is the oldest HBCU, established for the purpose of educating youth of African descent.
Hampton University was founded in 1868 and is located in Hampton, Virginia. With an endowment of more than $185.8 million, Hampton is one of the wealthiest HBCUs. The school confers approximately 848 undergraduate degrees yearly and consistently ranks in the top 10 in graduating African Americans with degrees in biology, business administration, communications, English, journalism, pharmacy, nursing and psychology.
Howard University, located in Washington, D.C., is one of the most prominent historically Black higher education institutions in the United States. Howard University is a comprehensive, research-oriented, private university providing an educational experience of exceptional quality to students of high academic potential. Particular emphasis is placed upon providing educational opportunities to promising Black students. Howard has produced more African American doctorate degree holders than any other institution in the world. Howard is the only HBCU to make the U.S. News and World Reports top 100 colleges and universities.
Florida A & M University was announced as the best school for African Americans in 2006 by the Black Enterprise magazine. Founded in 1887 as the State Normal College for Colored Students, the venerable HBCU offers 62 bachelors degrees in 103 majors/tracks and 36 masters degrees in 56 majors/tracks. Xavier University of New Orleans, Louisiana is the top school in the nation in the placement of Black students into medical schools and has the largest number of Black undergraduates receiving degrees in biology or life sciences. Xavier also has the distinction of being the only historically Black and Catholic university in the Western Hemisphere.
North Carolina Central University (NCCU) is a rapidly growing institution. It is the first liberal arts college for African Americans in the country. Its School of Law is ranked as one of Americas top law schools in the nation by the Princeton Review. With a student population of 9,000, NCCU is the ninth largest HBCU. NCCU also has the highest HBCU graduation rate in North Carolina. In 2005, NCCU ranked third in North Carolina in admitting the most National Merit Scholars.
Xavier University of New Orleans, Louisiana is the top school in the nation in the placement of Black students into medical schools and has the largest number of Black undergraduates receiving degrees in biology or life sciences. Xavier also has the distinction of being the only historically Black and Catholic university in the Western Hemisphere. North Carolina Central University (NCCU) is a rapidly growing institution. It is the first liberal arts college for African Americans in the country. Its School of Law is ranked as one of Americas top law schools in the nation by the Princeton Review. With a student. population of 9,000, NCCU is the ninth largest HBCU. NCCU also has the highest HBCU graduation rate in North Carolina. In 2005, NCCU ranked third in North Carolina in admitting the most National Merit Scholars.Wesleyan
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Mary McLeod Bethune was born in 1875 to former slaves in Mayesville, South Carolina. She devoted her life to ensuring the right to education and freedom from discrimination for African Americans. She believed that through education, Blacks could begin to earn a living in a country that opposed racial equality.
In 1904, Bethune opened the Daytona Normal and Industrial Institute for Negro Girls. Bethune never refused to educate a child whose family could not afford tuition. There was objection during Bethunes time to the education of Black children, but her zeal and dedication won over skeptics of both races. Bethune also opened a high school and a hospital for Blacks. In 1923, Bethune oversaw the high schools merger with the Cookman Institute, thereby forming the HBCU Bethune-Cookman College. She helped integrate the Red Cross and became president of the National Association of Colored Women, formed the National Council of Negro Women, and in 1940, Bethune served as VP of the NAACP.Wesleyan
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Edited by Charles L. Betsey
Beginning in the 1830s, public and private higher education institutions established to serve African-Americans operated in Pennsylvania and Ohio, the Border States, and the states of the old Confederacy. Until recently the vast majority of people of African descent who received post-secondary education in the United States did so in historically black institutions. Spurred on by financial and accreditation issues, litigation to assure compliance with court decisions, equal higher education opportunity for all citizens, and the role of race in admissions decisions, interest in the role, accomplishments, and future of Historically Black Colleges and Universities has been renewed. This volume touches upon these issues. Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) are a diverse group of 105 institutions.
They vary in size from several hundred students to over 10,000. Prior to Brown v. Board of Education, 90 percent of African-American postsecondary students were enrolled in HBCUs. Currently the 105 HBCUs account for 3 percent of the nations educational institutions, but they graduate about one-quarter of African-Americans receiving college degrees. The competition that HBCUs currently face in attracting and educating African-American and other students presents both challenges and opportunities. Despite the fact that numerous studies have found that HBCUs are more effective at retaining and graduating African-American students than predominately white colleges, HBCUs have serious detractors.
Perhaps because of the increasing pressures on state governments to assure that public HBCUs receive comparable funding and provide programs that will attract a broader student population, several public HBCUs no longer serve primarily African-American students. There is reason to believe, and it is the opinion of several contributors to this book, that in the changing higher education environment HBCUs will not survive, particularly those that are financially weak. The contributors to this volume provide cutting-edge data as well as solid social analysis of this major concern in black life as well as American higher education as a whole.
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Edited by Frank W. Hale, Jr.
To their disadvantage, few Americansand few in higher educationknow much about the successes of historically Black colleges and universities. How is it that historically Black colleges graduate so many low-income and academically poorly prepared students? How do they manage to do so well with students “as they are”, even when adopting open admissions policies? In this volume, contributors from a wide spectrum of Black colleges offer insights and examples of the policies and practicesuch as retention strategies, co-curricular activities and approaches to mentoringwhich underpin their disproportionate success with populations that too often fail in other institutions.
This book also challenges the myth that these colleges are segregated institutions and that teachers of color are essential to minority student success. HBCUs employ large numbers of non-Black faculty who demonstrate the ability to facilitate the success of African American students. This book offers valuable lessons for faculty, faculty developers, student affairs personnel and administrators in the wider higher education communitylessons that are all the more urgent as they face a growing racially diverse student population. While, for HBCUs themselves, this book reaffirms the importance of their mission today, it also raises issues they must address to maintain the edge they have achieved. Contributors: Pamela G. Arrington; Delbert Baker; Susan Baker; Stanley F. Battle; T. J. Bryan; Terrolyn P. Carter; Ronnie L. Collins; Samuel DuBois Cook; Elaine Johnson Copeland; Marcela A. Copes; Quiester Craig; Lawrence A. Davis, Jr.; Frances C. Gordon; Frank W. Hale, Jr.; B. Denise Hawkins; Karen A. Holbrook; James E. Hunter; Frank L. Matthews; Henry Ponder; Anne S. Pruitt-Logan; Talbert O. Shaw; Orlando L. Taylor ; W. Eric Thomas; M. Rick Turner; Mervyn A. Warren; Charles V. Willie; James G. Wingate.
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The State of African Education (April 200)
Dr Asa Hilliard III speaks on the assault of academia on Africans writing and accounting for their own history.
Dr Hilliard is A teacher, psychologist, and historian.
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#1 – Justify My Thug by Wahida Clark #2 – Flyy Girl by Omar Tyree #3 – Head Bangers: An APF Sexcapade by Zane #4 – Life Is Short But Wide by J. California Cooper #5 – Stackin’ Paper 2 Genesis’ Payback by Joy King #6 – Thug Lovin’ (Thug 4) by Wahida Clark #7 – When I Get Where I’m Going by Cheryl Robinson #8 – Casting the First Stone by Kimberla Lawson Roby #9 – The Sex Chronicles: Shattering the Myth by Zane
#10 – Covenant: A Thriller by Brandon Massey
#11 – Diary Of A Street Diva by Ashley and JaQuavis
#12 – Don’t Ever Tell by Brandon Massey
#13 – For colored girls who have considered suicide by Ntozake Shange
#14 – For the Love of Money : A Novel by Omar Tyree
#15 – Homemade Loves by J. California Cooper
#16 – The Future Has a Past: Stories by J. California Cooper
#17 – Player Haters by Carl Weber
#18 – Purple Panties: An Eroticanoir.com Anthology by Sidney Molare
#19 – Stackin’ Paper by Joy King
#20 – Children of the Street: An Inspector Darko Dawson Mystery by Kwei Quartey
#21 – The Upper Room by Mary Monroe
#22 Thug Matrimony by Wahida Clark
#23 – Thugs And The Women Who Love Them by Wahida Clark
#24 – Married Men by Carl Weber
#25 – I Dreamt I Was in Heaven – The Rampage of the Rufus Buck Gang by Leonce Gaiter
#1 – Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention by Manning Marable #2 – Confessions of a Video Vixen by Karrine Steffans #3 – Dear G-Spot: Straight Talk About Sex and Love by Zane #4 – Letters to a Young Brother: MANifest Your Destiny by Hill Harper #5 – Peace from Broken Pieces: How to Get Through What You’re Going Through by Iyanla Vanzant #6 – Selected Writings and Speeches of Marcus Garvey by Marcus Garvey #7 – The Ebony Cookbook: A Date with a Dish by Freda DeKnight #8 – The Isis Papers: The Keys to the Colors by Frances Cress Welsing #9 – The Mis-Education of the Negro by Carter Godwin Woodson
#10 – John Henrik Clarke and the Power of Africana History by Ahati N. N. Toure
#11 – Fail Up: 20 Lessons on Building Success from Failure by Tavis Smiley
#12 –The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness by Michelle Alexander
#13 – The Black Male Handbook: A Blueprint for Life by Kevin Powell
#14 – The Other Wes Moore: One Name, Two Fates by Wes Moore
#15 – Why Men Fear Marriage: The Surprising Truth Behind Why So Many Men Can’t Commit by RM Johnson
#16 – Black Titan: A.G. Gaston and the Making of a Black American Millionaire by Carol Jenkins
#17 – Brainwashed: Challenging the Myth of Black Inferiority by Tom Burrell
#18 – A New Earth: Awakening to Your Life’s Purpose by Eckhart Tolle
#19 – John Oliver Killens: A Life of Black Literary Activism by Keith Gilyard
#20 – Alain L. Locke: The Biography of a Philosopher by Leonard Harris
#21 – Age Ain’t Nothing but a Number: Black Women Explore Midlife by Carleen Brice
#22 – 2012 Guide to Literary Agents by Chuck Sambuchino #23 – Chicken Soup for the Prisoner’s Soul by Tom Lagana #24 – 101 Things Every Boy/Young Man of Color Should Know by LaMarr Darnell Shields
#25 – Beyond the Black Lady: Sexuality and the New African American Middle Class by Lisa B. Thompson
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By Paul Tough
What would it take? That was the question that Geoffrey Canada found himself asking. What would it take to change the lives of poor childrennot one by one, through heroic interventions and occasional miracles, but in big numbers, and in a way that could be replicated nationwide? The question led him to create the Harlem Children’s Zone, a ninety-seven-block laboratory in central Harlem where he is testing new and sometimes controversial ideas about poverty in America. His conclusion: if you want poor kids to be able to compete with their middle-class peers, you need to change everything in their livestheir schools, their neighborhoods, even the child-rearing practices of their parents. Whatever It Takes is a tour de force of reporting, an inspired portrait not only of Geoffrey Canada but also of the parents and children in Harlem who are struggling to better their lives, often against great odds. Carefully researched and deeply affecting, this is a dispatch from inside the most daring and potentially transformative social experiment of our time.
Paul Tough is an editor at the New York Times Magazine and one of America’s foremost writers on poverty, education, and the achievement gap. His reporting on Geoffrey Canada and the Harlem Children’s Zone originally appeared as a Times Magazine cover story. He lives with his wife in New York City.
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By Derrick Bell
In nine grim metaphorical sketches, Bell, the black former Harvard law professor who made headlines recently for his one-man protest against the school’s hiring policies, hammers home his controversial theme that white racism is a permanent, indestructible component of our society. Bell’s fantasies are often dire and apocalyptic: a new Atlantis rises from the ocean depths, sparking a mass emigration of blacks; white resistance to affirmative action softens following an explosion that kills Harvard’s president and all of the school’s black professors; intergalactic space invaders promise the U.S. President that they will clean up the environment and deliver tons of gold, but in exchange, the bartering aliens take all African Americans back to their planet. Other pieces deal with black-white romance, a taxi ride through Harlem and job discrimination.
Civil rights lawyer Geneva Crenshaw, the heroine of Bell’s And We Are Not Saved (1987), is back in some of these ominous allegories, which speak from the depths of anger and despair. Bell now teaches at New York University Law School.Publishers Weekly
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By Melissa V. Harris-Perry
According to the author, this society has historically exerted considerable pressure on black females to fit into one of a handful of stereotypes, primarily, the Mammy, the Matriarch or the Jezebel. The selfless Mammys behavior is marked by a slavish devotion to white folks domestic concerns, often at the expense of those of her own familys needs. By contrast, the relatively-hedonistic Jezebel is a sexually-insatiable temptress. And the Matriarch is generally thought of as an emasculating figure who denigrates black men, ala the characters Sapphire and Aunt Esther on the television shows Amos and Andy and Sanford and Son, respectively.
Professor Perry points out how the propagation of these harmful myths have served the mainstream culture well. For instance, the Mammy suggests that it is almost second nature for black females to feel a maternal instinct towards Caucasian babies.
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A Novel by Jesmyn Ward
On one level, Salvage the Bones is a simple story about a poor black family thats about to be trashed by one of the most deadly hurricanes in U.S. history. What makes the novel so powerful, though, is the way Ward winds private passions with that menace gathering force out in the Gulf of Mexico. Without a hint of pretension, in the simple lives of these poor people living among chickens and abandoned cars, she evokes the tenacious love and desperation of classical tragedy. The force that pushes back against Katrinas inexorable winds is the voice of Wards narrator, a 14-year-old girl named Esch, the only daughter among four siblings. Precocious, passionate and sensitive, she speaks almost entirely in phrases soaked in her familys raw land. Everything here is gritty, loamy and alive, as though the very soil were animated. Her brothers blood smells like wet hot earth after summer rain. . . . His scalp looks like fresh turned dirt. Her fathers hands are like gravel, while her own hand slides through his grip like a wet fish, and a handsome boys muscles jabbered like chickens. Admittedly, Ward can push so hard on this simile-obsessed style that her paragraphs risk sounding like a compost heap, but this isnt usually just metaphor for metaphors sake.
She conveys something fundamental about Eschs fluid state of mind: her figurative sense of the world in which all things correspond and connect. She and her brothers live in a ramshackle house steeped in grief since their mother died giving birth to her last child. . . . What remains, whats salvaged, is something indomitable in these tough siblings, the strength of their love, the permanence of their devotion.
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By Isabel Wilkerson
Ida Mae Brandon Gladney, a sharecropper’s wife, left Mississippi for Milwaukee in 1937, after her cousin was falsely accused of stealing a white man’s turkeys and was almost beaten to death. In 1945, George Swanson Starling, a citrus picker, fled Florida for Harlem after learning of the grove owners’ plans to give him a “necktie party” (a lynching). Robert Joseph Pershing Foster made his trek from Louisiana to California in 1953, embittered by “the absurdity that he was doing surgery for the United States Army and couldn’t operate in his own home town.” Anchored to these three stories is Pulitzer Prizewinning journalist Wilkerson’s magnificent, extensively researched study of the “great migration,” the exodus of six million black Southerners out of the terror of Jim Crow to an “uncertain existence” in the North and Midwest. Wilkerson deftly incorporates sociological and historical studies into the novelistic narratives of Gladney, Starling, and Pershing settling in new lands, building anew, and often finding that they have not left racism behind.
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By James D. Anderson
James Anderson critically reinterprets the history of southern black education from Reconstruction to the Great Depression. By placing black schooling within a political, cultural, and economic context, he offers fresh insights into black commitment to education, the peculiar significance of Tuskegee Institute, and the conflicting goals of various philanthropic groups, among other matters. Initially, ex-slaves attempted to create an educational system that would support and extend their emancipation, but their children were pushed into a system of industrial education that presupposed black political and economic subordination. This conception of education and social ordersupported by northern industrial philanthropists, some black educators, and most southern school officialsconflicted with the aspirations of ex-slaves and their descendants, resulting at the turn of the century in a bitter national debate over the purposes of black education. Because blacks lacked economic and political power, white elites were able to control the structure and content of black elementary, secondary, normal, and college education during the first third of the twentieth century. Nonetheless, blacks persisted in their struggle to develop an educational system in accordance with their own needs and desires.
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From The World and Africa, 1965
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posted 12 November 2010