ChickenBones: A Journal

for Literary & Artistic African-American Themes



These 17th-century black settlers entered areas like Dutch New Netherland,

the English Chesapeake, French Louisiana or Spanish Florida

with an indeterminate status that only gradually evolved into slavery.



Books by Ira Berlin

Slaves without Masters: The Free Negro in the Antebellum South  / Freedom: A Documentary History of Emancipation

Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in Mainland North America  /  Slaves without Masters / Free at Last

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Generations of Captivity

A History of African American Slaves

By Ira Berlin

The History of a Monstrous Enterprise

By Charles B. Dew

Ira Berlin has written what will undoubtedly become one of the indispensable books on North American slavery. ”Generations of Captivity” traces the history of this dismal institution from its 17th-century origins to its 19th-century destruction in the maelstrom of civil war. He comes closer than any other contemporary historian to giving us an opportunity — in a single, readable volume — to come to grips with a subject very few of us wish to think about but which all of us surely need to consider: how millions of white Americans over the course of three centuries came to hold millions of black Americans in chattel bondage while managing to lose nary a moment’s sleep over their complicity in this monstrous enterprise.

And a monstrous enterprise it certainly was. ”Slavery, of necessity, rested on force,” Berlin writes in his prologue, and he weaves together the critical, interrelated themes of ”violence, power and labor.” Chapter by chapter, he illuminates the changes that occurred in slavery over time. At any given moment, bondage meant different things to different people across the various regions of North America. Berlin’s perceptive discussion of regional distinctiveness and his nuanced analysis of how slavery was transformed over the course of 300 years are two of his signal achievements.

Berlin, who teaches history at the University of Maryland, College Park, begins with what he calls the ”charter generations.” These 17th-century black settlers entered areas like Dutch New Netherland, the English Chesapeake, French Louisiana or Spanish Florida with an indeterminate status that only gradually evolved into slavery. Their debasement was driven by the European demand for workers who could be used to exploit the economic opportunities offered by the New World. But Berlin argues that the slaves who formed the core of these ”charter generations” were often able to escape a bondage that had not yet rigidified into an all-encompassing institution. In Florida, for example, militia service offered slaves a pathway to freedom.

Their successors were not so fortunate. As money-making crops like tobacco sparked the growth of large-scale commercial agriculture, the ”plantation generations” began to emerge in the Chesapeake region. What had once been a ”society with slaves” was transformed into a ”slave society,” where the institution took its place ”at the center of economic production.” The arrival of tens of thousands of slaves in the late 17th century and early 18th century redefined the meaning of race, heightened the level of violence and led to ”a sharp deterioration in the conditions of slave life.” The Chesapeake plantations established a pattern for low-country South Carolina, Georgia and East Florida, with consequences that would extend deep into the 18th century.

Hope for the enslaved did not arrive until the American Revolution. In the South, thousands of slaves in the ”Revolutionary generations” found freedom in the turbulence of war. In the North, Revolutionary ideology, the relatively small numbers of slaves and their marginal economic significance combined to produce eventual emancipation. But Southern masters held their ground, and with the restoration of peace they carried the plantation system west. In the lower Mississippi Valley, the Louisiana Purchase led to the dramatic growth of slavery in that region. ”At the end of the Revolutionary era, there were many more black people enslaved than at the beginning,” Berlin notes. The promise of the Revolution for the vast majority of slaves had come to naught.

The stage was now set for the ”migration generations.” From the late 18th century until the eve of the Civil War, slaves were caught in the vise of a mass movement Berlin refers to as a Second Middle Passage. More than one million slaves were transported from the Eastern Seaboard states to the cotton and sugar areas of the Deep South, a process ”dwarfing the trans-Atlantic slave trade that had carried Africans to the mainland.” Black families were regularly torn apart, and longstanding slave communities were devastated as traders sought to meet this voracious demand. ”The internal slave trade became the largest enterprise in the South outside of the plantation itself,” Berlin writes, ”and probably the most advanced in its employment of modern transportation, finance and publicity.”

Slaves fought back as best they could. They built new families in the developing regions and turned to Christianity as a faith that offered hope for eventual salvation. They used the critical leverage they possessed — the masters’ dependence on their labor — to demand better living conditions, payment for work on Sundays and evenings, and the right to till their own gardens and raise poultry and livestock for their own use. ”Despite their enormous power, slaveholders found such compromises prudent,” Berlin notes, and slave men and women used the space they carved out for themselves to create a culture that reflected their religious and secular values. Their success in resisting the dehumanizing effects of their bondage is one of the few bright threads in the gloomy tapestry of slavery.

Slave owners, in the end, felt no guilt over what they had done and were doing. It was all part of God’s plan, they told themselves, and they insisted that they — the masters and mistresses — shouldered the real burdens of slavery, looking out for a childlike people who needed white guidance and discipline. But then came the Civil War, and the slaves shattered their owners’ illusions and wrote the final chapter in the tragedy that was the American slave system. They sought and gained their freedom by the tens of thousands as federal forces approached, and over 200,000 blacks served in the Union Army and Navy. It was ”a social revolution of mammoth proportions,” Berlin concludes, and black men and women were active agents in destroying the institution that had held them in bondage for so long.

Berlin has given us a moving, insightful account of slavery in the United States. Readers will not soon forget the story he has told, nor should they. We still live with the consequences of this institution, and we should understand what slavery meant to the generations of captivity who lived it.

Charles B. Dew teaches Southern history at Williams College and is the author of ”Bond of Iron: Master and Slave at Buffalo Forge.” 


Ira Berlin

Distinguished University Professor Ph.D. University of Wisconsin, 1970 US History, African-American History, Slavery

Ira Berlin has written broadly on the history of slavery and emancipation in the United States and the larger Atlantic world. His first book, Slaves without Masters: The Free Negro in the Antebellum South (1975) won the Best First Book Prize awarded by the National Historical Society. Berlin is the founder of the Freedmen and Southern Society Project, which he directed until 1991. The project’s multi-volume Freedom: A Documentary History of Emancipation (1982, 1985, 1990, 1993) has twice been awarded the Thomas Jefferson Prize of the Society for History in the Federal Government as well as the J. Franklin Jameson Prize of the American Historical Association for outstanding editorial achievement, and the Abraham Lincoln Prize for excellence in Civil-War studies. 

In 1999, his study of African-American life between 1619 and 1819 entitled Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in Mainland North America was published by Harvard University Press was awarded the Bancroft Prize for the best book in American history by Columbia University; Frederick Douglass Prize by the Gilder-Lehrman Institute; Owsley Prize by the Southern Historical Association, and the Rudwick Prize by the Organization of American Historians. That same year, the Humanities Council of Washington named Ira Berlin Outstanding Public Humanities Scholar of the Year. He is currently president of the Organization of American Historians.

Professor Berlin has published a monograph, an edition of his own essays, several editions of articles, and three co-edited volumes of documents in the Freedman and Southern Society Project. His monograph, Slaves without Masters, won the Best First Book Prize of the National Historical Society. The Wartime Genesis of Slavery and The Destruction of Slavery both won the Founders Award of the Valentine Museum in Richmond and the Jefferson Prize of the Society for History in the Federal Government. The Black Military Experience won the J. Franklin Jameson Prize of the American Historical Association. Free at Last won the prestigious Lincoln Prize. Professor Berlin has also written numerous articles and chapters in scholarly works. He sits on a number of editorial boards, has consulted for programs like Ken Burns’ Civil War, and has held office in national historical organizations. He has held an NEH Junior Fellowship, has been a Fulbright Senior Scholar in France, and lectured as a Ford Foundation Fellow. He has also served as Dean of Undergraduate Studies and Acting Dean of the College of Arts and Humanities.

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Sister Citizen: Shame, Stereotypes, and Black Women in America

By Melissa V. Harris-Perry

According to the author, this society has historically exerted considerable pressure on black females to fit into one of a handful of stereotypes, primarily, the Mammy, the Matriarch or the Jezebel.  The selfless Mammy’s behavior is marked by a slavish devotion to white folks’ domestic concerns, often at the expense of those of her own family’s needs. By contrast, the relatively-hedonistic Jezebel is a sexually-insatiable temptress. And the Matriarch is generally thought of as an emasculating figure who denigrates black men, ala the characters Sapphire and Aunt Esther on the television shows Amos and Andy and Sanford and Son, respectively.     

Professor Perry points out how the propagation of these harmful myths have served the mainstream culture well. For instance, the Mammy suggests that it is almost second nature for black females to feel a maternal instinct towards Caucasian babies.

As for the source of the Jezebel, black women had no control over their own bodies during slavery given that they were being auctioned off and bred to maximize profits. Nonetheless, it was in the interest of plantation owners to propagate the lie that sisters were sluts inclined to mate indiscriminately.

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Sex at the Margins

Migration, Labour Markets and the Rescue Industry

By Laura María Agustín

This book explodes several myths: that selling sex is completely different from any other kind of work, that migrants who sell sex are passive victims and that the multitude of people out to save them are without self-interest. Laura Agustín makes a passionate case against these stereotypes, arguing that the label ‘trafficked’ does not accurately describe migrants’ lives and that the ‘rescue industry’ serves to disempower them. Based on extensive research amongst both migrants who sell sex and social helpers, Sex at the Margins provides a radically different analysis. Frequently, says Agustin, migrants make rational choices to travel and work in the sex industry, and although they are treated like a marginalised group they form part of the dynamic global economy. Both powerful and controversial, this book is essential reading for all those who want to understand the increasingly important relationship between sex markets, migration and the desire for social justice. “Sex at the Margins rips apart distinctions between migrants, service work and sexual labour and reveals the utter complexity of the contemporary sex industry. This book is set to be a trailblazer in the study of sexuality.”—Lisa Adkins, University of London

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The White Masters of the World

From The World and Africa, 1965

By W. E. B. Du Bois

W. E. B. Du Bois’ Arraignment and Indictment of White Civilization (Fletcher)

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Ancient African Nations

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Negro Digest / Black World

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The Death of Emmett Till by Bob Dylan  The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll  Only a Pawn in Their Game

Rev. Jesse Lee Peterson Thanks America for Slavery /

George Jackson  / Hurricane Carter

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The Journal of Negro History issues at Project Gutenberg

The Haitian Declaration of Independence 1804  / January 1, 1804 — The Founding of Haiti 

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posted 23 March 2003





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Related files:  Generations of Captivity Reviews   Charles B. Dew Review  Many Thousands Gone