ChickenBones: A Journal
for Literary & Artistic African-American Themes
My aim . . . is not to brand Freud a racist and then dismiss psychoanalysis
as irredeemably racist because its inventor was. . . . I want . . . to reveal
that the position of both the theory and the practice of psychoanalysis today
Books by Claudia Tate
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Freud and His “Negro”: Psychoanalysis
as Ally and Enemy of African Americans
By Claudia Tate
Who Practices Psychoanalysis?
[T] he practitioners of psychoanalysis are almost categorically all white, and its analytical models disregard the effects of racial differences on the lived experiences of the analysts and analysands. . . . African American scholars have been so hesitant in embracing psychoanalysis. For once African Americans recognize that psychoanalysis always seems to boil down to sexual matters to the exclusion of race matters, psychoanalysis appears to ally itself as much or more with the forces of white privilege than with those of racial equality.
Freud’s Racism and Tate’s Intent
My aim . . . is not to brand Freud a racist and then dismiss psychoanalysis as irredeemably racist because its inventor was. . . . I want . . . to reveal that the position of both the theory and the practice of psychoanalysis today is still tainted by the racism in which psychoanalysis originated and that we must acknowledge and try to alter this positioning . . . . I want my exploration of Freud’s joke . . . to demonstrate some of the potential that psychoanalysis holds for undermining racism.
Freud’s Negro Joke
In the Life and Work of Sigmund Freud (1957), Ernest Jones, Freud’s eminent biographer, reports that in 1924 Freud rejuvenated an “old joke” by referring to an American patient as “his negro” (Vol. 3, 105). Jones explains that Freud’s use of this “strange appellation” dated back to 1886. . . .For when the joke leaked into the public domain and materialized also in 1886 as “a cartoon in the Fliegende Blatter depicting a yawning lion muttering ‘Twelve o’clock and no negro’,” Freud identified with the lion and produced a new rendition of the joke by conflating it with the cartoon (Vol. 1, 151). . . .The old joke must have delighted Freud because, as Jones reports, Freud told variations of it to those in his inner circle for several decades.
Replicating the Master/Slave Relationship
Freud [by identifying himself with the lion] has established (however unconsciously) an equation between the analyst/patient relationship and the most brutal form of the master / slave relationship, in which the slave is only a piece of meat to satisfy the master’s ravenous appetite (for power, money, sex, aggression, or whatever). Freud’s joke thus reveals an imbalance of power intrinsic to the analytic relationship that in many ways puts the patient at the mercy of the analyst, just as the slave is at the mercy of the master.
Freud’s joke also reveals Freud’s own racial anxiety, an anxiety that . . . played a significant role in the way Freud and other Jewish analysts tried to position themselves and their practice in relation to gentile society. Freud’s own racism . . .can be seen as partly a defense against his own Jewish identity. . . .[It] functions to allay his anxiety about the reception of psychoanalysis and the social alienation associated with his Jewish identity in anti-Semitic Austria of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.
Freud’s Discursive Blackface & Derisive Blackness
[The] joke’s ironic performance of blackness allows Freud to stage his own white masculinity in the guise of the colonial master. . . . [It] reveals the racial trauma that psychoanalysis originally sought to master Freud’s compulsive repetition of the joke suggests that for him psychoanalysis failed to acheive a permanent mastery of his feelings of social alienation.
Psychoanalysis and Privilege: Bedfellows
By allying itself with social privilege, psychoanalysis confined itself to the private realm of the white bourgeois family. under these conditions, whiteness effaced the racial difference of Jewishness, but only if the social borders were marked by ostracized blacks. This confinement repressed the “primal scene” of the larger culture and its racial castration.”
[Descendants of European Jews in America] forget that they were once “black” in Europe. Like the assimilated Jewish Americans, the practice of psychoanalysis reinforces its position in dominant US culture by forgetting that it was born of racial conflict and, moreover that many of the psychological conflicts of its patients also have roots in racial conflict.
Blackness & Feminine Deficiency
When the figurative blackness of Freud’s “negro’ patients proved insufficient to subdue his anxiety over anti-Semitism, he turned to another displacement by constructing the lack for “woman” based on her missing penis and described her essence as impenetrable as the “dark continent”–Africa (Freud, “The Question of Lay Analysis” 212).
How Black Is Black?
Freud’s joke reconstitutes the polarized economy of power between Jewish therapy and ailment by transforming this relationship into a tripartite one of relative social privilege among whites, Jews, and Negroes before collapsing the triangular formulation into the simple polarity of white and black. this reconstitution has the effect of whitening the metaphorical blackness of Jewishness in direct proportion to the prominence of actual black bodies. Suc prominence erases the Semitic blackness presumed by Aryans because Jews under these circumstances become absorbed into the category of whiteness.
Symbolic Blackness, American Art & White Supremacy
Indeed, Freud’s “old joke” deals with racial anxiety in much the same way as The Jazz Singer does: both exploit the ontological blackness of African Americans to erase the figurative blackness of the Jewish body. . . . Jack’s choice to sing jazz under the name of Jack Robin literally kills his Jewish father–a personification of Old World customs and, thus, Semitic blackness–and opens a space for himself as a white American son. . . .
In his performance of blackface, Jolson actually performs whiteness, masked as blackness. . . . blackface bolstered the sense of racial privilege of both the white performers and the white working-class audience by making their social difference the object of common-sense whiteness instead of other more discriminating signs. Early black minstrelsy, then, was a discourse of whiteness.
Psychoanalysis: the White Man’s Game of Superiority
Psychoanalysis has functioned to affirm white, masculine heterosexuality as the pinnacle of civilized culture at a time when peoples of European origin first recognize themselves as a minority in the global population, when Western women are more effectively demanding political agency, and when other forms of socialization and family formation appear to subvert the naturalness of the nuclear family. When these historical factors become prominent, psychoanalysis appears as a discourse about “a crisis in the male imperial identity”, in which race disappears and sex looms everywhere.
The Utility of Psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis can also help us to analyze the racist roots of many cultural phenomenon like Freud’s joke. Perhaps we can appropriate the tools of psychoanalysis and use them in ways that its creators and early practitioners never imagined.
Source: Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture & Society, Volume 1, Number 1, Spring 1996, pp. 53-62.
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#1 – Justify My Thug by Wahida Clark #2 – Flyy Girl by Omar Tyree #3 – Head Bangers: An APF Sexcapade by Zane #4 – Life Is Short But Wide by J. California Cooper #5 – Stackin’ Paper 2 Genesis’ Payback by Joy King #6 – Thug Lovin’ (Thug 4) by Wahida Clark #7 – When I Get Where I’m Going by Cheryl Robinson #8 – Casting the First Stone by Kimberla Lawson Roby #9 – The Sex Chronicles: Shattering the Myth by Zane
#10 – Covenant: A Thriller by Brandon Massey
#11 – Diary Of A Street Diva by Ashley and JaQuavis
#12 – Don’t Ever Tell by Brandon Massey
#13 – For colored girls who have considered suicide by Ntozake Shange
#14 – For the Love of Money : A Novel by Omar Tyree
#15 – Homemade Loves by J. California Cooper
#16 – The Future Has a Past: Stories by J. California Cooper
#17 – Player Haters by Carl Weber
#18 – Purple Panties: An Eroticanoir.com Anthology by Sidney Molare
#19 – Stackin’ Paper by Joy King
#20 – Children of the Street: An Inspector Darko Dawson Mystery by Kwei Quartey
#21 – The Upper Room by Mary Monroe
#22 Thug Matrimony by Wahida Clark
#23 – Thugs And The Women Who Love Them by Wahida Clark
#24 – Married Men by Carl Weber
#25 – I Dreamt I Was in Heaven – The Rampage of the Rufus Buck Gang by Leonce Gaiter
#1 – Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention by Manning Marable #2 – Confessions of a Video Vixen by Karrine Steffans #3 – Dear G-Spot: Straight Talk About Sex and Love by Zane #4 – Letters to a Young Brother: MANifest Your Destiny by Hill Harper #5 – Peace from Broken Pieces: How to Get Through What You’re Going Through by Iyanla Vanzant #6 – Selected Writings and Speeches of Marcus Garvey by Marcus Garvey #7 – The Ebony Cookbook: A Date with a Dish by Freda DeKnight #8 – The Isis Papers: The Keys to the Colors by Frances Cress Welsing #9 – The Mis-Education of the Negro by Carter Godwin Woodson
#10 – John Henrik Clarke and the Power of Africana History by Ahati N. N. Toure
#11 – Fail Up: 20 Lessons on Building Success from Failure by Tavis Smiley
#12 –The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness by Michelle Alexander
#13 – The Black Male Handbook: A Blueprint for Life by Kevin Powell
#14 – The Other Wes Moore: One Name, Two Fates by Wes Moore
#15 – Why Men Fear Marriage: The Surprising Truth Behind Why So Many Men Can’t Commit by RM Johnson
#16 – Black Titan: A.G. Gaston and the Making of a Black American Millionaire by Carol Jenkins
#17 – Brainwashed: Challenging the Myth of Black Inferiority by Tom Burrell
#18 – A New Earth: Awakening to Your Life’s Purpose by Eckhart Tolle
#19 – John Oliver Killens: A Life of Black Literary Activism by Keith Gilyard
#20 – Alain L. Locke: The Biography of a Philosopher by Leonard Harris
#21 – Age Ain’t Nothing but a Number: Black Women Explore Midlife by Carleen Brice
#22 – 2012 Guide to Literary Agents by Chuck Sambuchino #23 – Chicken Soup for the Prisoner’s Soul by Tom Lagana #24 – 101 Things Every Boy/Young Man of Color Should Know by LaMarr Darnell Shields
#25 – Beyond the Black Lady: Sexuality and the New African American Middle Class by Lisa B. Thompson
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By H. W. Brands
In Greenback Planet, acclaimed historian H. W. Brands charts the dollar’s astonishing rise to become the world’s principal currency. Telling the story with the verve of a novelist, he recounts key episodes in U.S. monetary history, from the Civil War debate over fiat money (greenbacks) to the recent worldwide financial crisis. Brands explores the dollar’s changing relations to gold and silver and to other currencies and cogently explains how America’s economic might made the dollar the fundamental standard of value in world finance. He vividly describes the 1869 Black Friday attempt to corner the gold market, banker J. P. Morgan’s bailout of the U.S. treasury, the creation of the Federal Reserve, and President Franklin Roosevelt’s handling of the bank panic of 1933. Brands shows how lessons learned (and not learned) in the Great Depression have influenced subsequent U.S. monetary policy, and how the dollar’s dominance helped transform economies in countries ranging from Germany and Japan after World War II to Russia and China today. He concludes with a sobering dissection of the 2008 world financial debacle, which exposed the power–and the enormous risks–of the dollar’s worldwide reign. The Economy
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This book explodes several myths: that selling sex is completely different from any other kind of work, that migrants who sell sex are passive victims and that the multitude of people out to save them are without self-interest. Laura Agustín makes a passionate case against these stereotypes, arguing that the label ‘trafficked’ does not accurately describe migrants’ lives and that the ‘rescue industry’ serves to disempower them. Based on extensive research amongst both migrants who sell sex and social helpers, Sex at the Margins provides a radically different analysis. Frequently, says Agustin, migrants make rational choices to travel and work in the sex industry, and although they are treated like a marginalised group they form part of the dynamic global economy. Both powerful and controversial, this book is essential reading for all those who want to understand the increasingly important relationship between sex markets, migration and the desire for social justice. “Sex at the Margins rips apart distinctions between migrants, service work and sexual labour and reveals the utter complexity of the contemporary sex industry. This book is set to be a trailblazer in the study of sexuality.”Lisa Adkins, University of London
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From The World and Africa, 1965
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update 19 December 2011