Fourth View Given on Racial

Fourth View Given on Racial


ChickenBones: A Journal

for Literary & Artistic African-American Themes



Some prefer segregation  because they feel it is a lesser evil than the fighting, ill will and hardships that come through efforts to

do away with it. Some Negro people say they prize their friendships with the white people, live in good relations with them and

wish to continue as they are. Some do not feel the gains are as great as the losses that integration would bring.



Blacks, Unions, & Organizing in the South, 1956-1996


Compiled by Rudolph Lewis

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The Racial Problem


Fourth View Given On Racial Problem

by Charles L. Allen

Atlanta Constitution

(January 4, 1957)


            Why do some Negroes prefer segregation? In previous columns we have looked a various reasons people give for segregation or integration. In the last column in this series let us consider the reasons of one other group–the Negroes who prefer segregation.

            (1) Some negroes who prefer segregation because they believe they have a better chance if their competition in life is limited to their own race. They think that as long as Negroes maintain their own churches and schools, look to each other for professional services, trade with each other, etc., they will get along better.

            Bit if integration were a fact, they fear that in competing with the better-trained white people they would suffer. They feel that in time this objection would be overcome but it would be along time and would displace many Negro people from their means of livelihood and their positions in their communities.

            (2) Some Negroes prefer segregation because they want to maintain their own race. They fear that because they are such a minority group in this country that, as a race, they would be swallowed up. They believe in the sanctity of each race and fear intermarriage with equal concern as do some white people. They contend that many negroes ‘cross the line’ every year and under integration the number would multiply rapidly until finally only the very lowest class of Negroes would be left.

            (3) Some Negroes prefer segregation because they prefer their own society and do not want the white man coming into it. They say they like their own churches and schools better as they are, that they prefer Negro neighbors and that generally they are freer and happier with their own people.

            (4) Some prefer segregation  because they feel it is a lesser evil than the fighting, ill will and hardships that come through efforts to do away with it. Some Negro people say they prize their friendships with the white people, live in good relations with them and wish to continue as they are. Some do not feel the gains are as great as the losses that integration would bring.

            (5) Well–as clearly as I could, I have given some reasons why some white people prefer segregation; why some Negro people prefer integration’ why some white people prefer integration’ why some Negroes prefer segregation. Many of the reasons I have stated are not valid, but they are reasons people give. As one looks at this matter from four sides, he sees there is some merit in each side as well as wrong thinking on each side.

            This is a social problem that must be honestly faced and worked at intelligently. On one occasion the Lord said the Peter, “Put up thy sword” (John 18:11). I feel that is advice we must follow here. Nothing is solved through violence but all things can be solve through love. “Love never faileth.”

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Asa Philip Randolph was born April 15, 1889 in Crescent City, Florida, the second son of the Rev. James William Randolph, a tailor and minister in the African Methodist Episcopal Church, and Elizabeth Robinson Randolph, a skilled seamstress. In 1891 the family moved to Jacksonville, Florida, which had a thriving, well-established African-American community.

From his father, Randolph learned that color was less important than a person’s character and conduct. From his mother, he learned the importance of education and of defending oneself physically against those who would seek to hurt one or one’s family, if necessary. Randolph remembered vividly the night his mother sat in the front room of their house with a loaded shotgun across her lap, while his father tucked a pistol under his coat and went off to prevent a mob from lynching a man at the local county jail.

 He was a leader in the U.S.’s Negro civil-rights movement and the American labor movement. He organized and led the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, the first predominantly Negro labor union. In the early civil-rights movement, Randolph led the March on Washington Movement, which convinced Franklin D. Roosevelt to desegregate production-plants for military supplies during World War II. In 1963, Randolph was the head of the March on Washington, which was organized by Bayard Rustin, at which Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his I Have A Dream speech. Randolph inspired the Freedom budget, sometimes called the “Randolph Freedom budget,” which aimed to deal with the economic problems facing the Negro community, particularly workers and unemployed Negroes. . . .

Randolph died May 16, 1979.  A statue of A. Philip Randolph was erected in his honor in the concourse of Union Station in Washington, D.C. In 1986 a nine-foot bronze statue of Randolph by Tina Allen was erected in Boston’s Back Bay commuter train station. On February 3, 1989, the United States Postal Service issued a 25 cent postage stamp in his honor. In 2002, scholar Molefi Kete Asante listed A. Philip Randolph on his list of 100 Greatest African Americans

Books on A. Philip Randolph

Jervis Anderson, A. Philip Randolph: A Biographical Portrait (1973; University of California Press, 1986).

Sarah E. Wright, A. Philip Randolph: Integration in the Workplace (Silver Burdett Press, 1990),

Paula Pfeffer, A. Philip Randolph, Pioneer of the Civil Rights Movement (1990; Louisiana State University Press, 1996).

Andrew E. Kersten, A. Philip Randolph: A Life in the Vanguard (Rowan and Littlefield, 2006).

Cynthia Taylor, A. Philip Randolph: The Religious Journey of An African American Labor Leader (NYU Press, 2006).

Source: Wikipedia

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Sister Citizen: Shame, Stereotypes, and Black Women in America

By Melissa V. Harris-Perry

According to the author, this society has historically exerted considerable pressure on black females to fit into one of a handful of stereotypes, primarily, the Mammy, the Matriarch or the Jezebel.  The selfless Mammy’s behavior is marked by a slavish devotion to white folks’ domestic concerns, often at the expense of those of her own family’s needs. By contrast, the relatively-hedonistic Jezebel is a sexually-insatiable temptress. And the Matriarch is generally thought of as an emasculating figure who denigrates black men, ala the characters Sapphire and Aunt Esther on the television shows Amos and Andy and Sanford and Son, respectively.     

Professor Perry points out how the propagation of these harmful myths have served the mainstream culture well. For instance, the Mammy suggests that it is almost second nature for black females to feel a maternal instinct towards Caucasian babies.

As for the source of the Jezebel, black women had no control over their own bodies during slavery given that they were being auctioned off and bred to maximize profits. Nonetheless, it was in the interest of plantation owners to propagate the lie that sisters were sluts inclined to mate indiscriminately.

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Sex at the Margins

Migration, Labour Markets and the Rescue Industry

By Laura María Agustín

This book explodes several myths: that selling sex is completely different from any other kind of work, that migrants who sell sex are passive victims and that the multitude of people out to save them are without self-interest. Laura Agustín makes a passionate case against these stereotypes, arguing that the label ‘trafficked’ does not accurately describe migrants’ lives and that the ‘rescue industry’ serves to disempower them. Based on extensive research amongst both migrants who sell sex and social helpers, Sex at the Margins provides a radically different analysis. Frequently, says Agustin, migrants make rational choices to travel and work in the sex industry, and although they are treated like a marginalised group they form part of the dynamic global economy. Both powerful and controversial, this book is essential reading for all those who want to understand the increasingly important relationship between sex markets, migration and the desire for social justice. “Sex at the Margins rips apart distinctions between migrants, service work and sexual labour and reveals the utter complexity of the contemporary sex industry. This book is set to be a trailblazer in the study of sexuality.”—Lisa Adkins, University of London

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The White Masters of the World

From The World and Africa, 1965

By W. E. B. Du Bois

W. E. B. Du Bois’ Arraignment and Indictment of White Civilization (Fletcher)

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Ancient African Nations

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Negro Digest / Black World

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The Death of Emmett Till by Bob Dylan  The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll  Only a Pawn in Their Game

Rev. Jesse Lee Peterson Thanks America for Slavery /

George Jackson  / Hurricane Carter

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The Journal of Negro History issues at Project Gutenberg

The Haitian Declaration of Independence 1804  / January 1, 1804 — The Founding of Haiti 

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posted 22 June 2008 




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Related files: Origin of Segregation     Intermarriage a No-No       Who Wants Integration      The Problem of Integration   

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