ChickenBones: A Journal
for Literary & Artistic African-American Themes
Report of a Social Study made under the direction of Atlanta University
together with the Proceedings of the Eighth Conference
for the Study of the Negro Problems, held at Atlanta University, May 26th, 1903
Books by Du Bois
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Shirley Graham Du Bois, His Day Is Marching On: A Memoir of W.E. B. Du Bois (1971)
Leslie Alexander Lacy. The Life of W.E.B. Du Bois: Cheer the Lonesome Traveler (1970)
Du Bois on Reform: Periodical-based Leadership for African Americans. Edited and Introduced by Brian Johnson. 2005 / A Du Bois Bibliography
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THE NEGRO CHURCH
Edited by W. E. Burghardt Du Bois, Corresponding Secretary of the Conference
The Atlanta University Press Atlanta, Ga. 1903
The Negro Church is the only social institution of the Negroes which started in the African forest and survived slavery; under the leadership of priest or medicine man, afterward of the Christian pastor, the Church preserved in itself the remnants of African tribal life and became after emancipation the center of Negro social life. So that today the Negro population of the United States is virtually divided into church congregations which are the real units of race life.
Report of the Third Atlanta Conference, 1898.
PREFACE . . . . .v
BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . .vi
1. Primitive Negro Religion . . . . .1
2. Effect of Transplanting . . . . 2.
3. The Obeah Sorcery . . . . . 5
4. Slavery and Christianity . . . . .6
5. Early Restrictions . . . . . 10
6. The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel . . . . .12
7. The Moravians, Methodists, Baptists, and Presbyterians . . . . .15
8. The Sects and Slavery . . . . . 20
10. Third Period of Missionary Enterprise . . . . . 26
11. The Earlier Churches and Preachers. (By Mr. John W. Cromwell) . . . . .30
12. Some Other Ante-Bellum Preachers . . . . .35
13. The Negro Church in 1890 . . . . . 37
14. Local Studies, 1902-3 . . . . .49
15. A Black Belt County, Georgia. (By the Rev. W. H. Holloway) . . . . . 57
16. A Town in Florida. (By Annie Marion MacLean, Ph. D.) . . . . . 64
17. A Southern City . . . . .69
18. Virginia . . . . . 80
19. The Middle West, Illinois. (By Monroe N. Work, A. M., and the Editor) . . . . .83
20. The Middle West, Ohio. (By R. R. Wright, Jr.) . . . . . 92
21. An Eastern City . . . . . 108
22. Present Condition of Churches–The Baptists . . . . . 111
23. The African Methodists . . . . .123
25. The Zion Methodists . . . . . 131
26. The Colored Methodists . . . . . 133
27. The Methodists . . . . . 134
28. The Episcopalians . . . . . 138
29. The Presbyterians . . . . . 142
30. The Congregationalists . . . . .147
31. Summary of Negro Churches, 1900-1903 . . . . . 153
32. Negro Laymen and the Church . . . . . 154
33. Southern Whites and the Negro Church . . . . .164
34. The Moral Status of Negroes . . . . . 176
35. Children and the Church . . . . . 185
36. The Training of Ministers . . . . . 190
37. Some Notable Preachers . . . . . 202
38. The Eighth Atlanta Conference . . . . .202
39. Remarks of Dr. Washington Gladden . . . . .204
40. Resolutions . . . . . 207
Index . . . . . 209
A study of human life to-day involves a consideration of conditions of physical life, a study of various social organizations, beginning with the home, and investigations into occupations, education, religion and morality, crime and political activity. The Atlanta Cycle of studies into the Negro problem aims at exhaustive and periodic studies of all these subjects so far as they relate to the American Negro. Thus far, in the first eight years of the ten-year cycle, we have studied physical conditions of life (Reports No. 1 and No. 2), social organization (Reports No. 2 and No. 3), economic activity (Reports No. 4 and No. 7), and Education (Reports No. 5 and No. 6). This year we take up the important subject of the NEGRO CHURCH, studying the religion of Negroes and its influence on their moral habits.
Such a study could not be made exhaustive for lack of funds and organization. On the other hand, the United States government and the churches themselves have published a great deal of material and it is possible from this and limited investigations in various typical localities to make a study of some value.
This investigation bases its results on the following data:
United States Census of 1890.
Minutes of Conferences.
Reports of Conventions, Societies, etc.
Catalogues of Theological Schools.
Two hundred and fifty special reports from pastors and officials.
One hundred and seventy-five special reports from colored laymen.
One hundred and seventeen special reports from heads of schools and prominent men, white and colored.
Fifty-four special reports from Southern white persons.
Thirteen special reports from Colored Theological Schools.
One hundred and nine special reports from Northern Theological Schools.
Answers from 1,300 school children.
Local studies in–
Richmond, Virginia. . . . . . Atlanta, Georgia.
Chicago, Illinois. . . . . . Greene County, Ohio.
Thomas County, Georgia. . . . . . Deland, Florida.
General and periodical literature.
In the preparation of this report the editor begs to acknowledge his indebtedness to the several hundred persons who have so kindly answered his inquiries; to students in Atlanta University and Virginia Union University, who have made special investigations; and particularly to Professor B. F. Williams, Mr. M. N. Work, Mr. R. R. Wright, Jr., and Mr. W. H. Holloway, all of whom have given valuable time and services to this work.
The Rev. F. J. Grimke has kindly allowed the use of his unpublished report, made to the Hampton Conference in 1901; Mr. J. W. Cromwell has loaned us the results of his historical researches, and Dr. A. M. MacLean has given us the results of a valuable local study. The proof-reading was largely done by Mr. A. G. Dill.
Atlanta University has been conducting studies similar to this for the past seven years. The results, distributed at a nominal sum, have been widely used.
Notwithstanding this success the social problems that has ever faced the Nation, for substantial aid and encouragement in the further prosecution of these important studies is greatly hampered by the lack of funds. With meagre appropriations for expenses, lack of clerical help and necessary apparatus, the Conference cannot cope properly with the vast field of work before it.
We appeal therefore to those who think it worth while to study this, the greatest group of further prosecution of the work of the Atlanta Conference.
Other sources: DocSouth
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For July 1st through August 31st 2011
#1 – Justify My Thug by Wahida Clark #2 – Flyy Girl by Omar Tyree #3 – Head Bangers: An APF Sexcapade by Zane #4 – Life Is Short But Wide by J. California Cooper #5 – Stackin’ Paper 2 Genesis’ Payback by Joy King #6 – Thug Lovin’ (Thug 4) by Wahida Clark #7 – When I Get Where I’m Going by Cheryl Robinson #8 – Casting the First Stone by Kimberla Lawson Roby #9 – The Sex Chronicles: Shattering the Myth by Zane
#10 – Covenant: A Thriller by Brandon Massey
#11 – Diary Of A Street Diva by Ashley and JaQuavis
#12 – Don’t Ever Tell by Brandon Massey
#13 – For colored girls who have considered suicide by Ntozake Shange
#14 – For the Love of Money : A Novel by Omar Tyree
#15 – Homemade Loves by J. California Cooper
#16 – The Future Has a Past: Stories by J. California Cooper
#17 – Player Haters by Carl Weber
#18 – Purple Panties: An Eroticanoir.com Anthology by Sidney Molare
#19 – Stackin’ Paper by Joy King
#20 – Children of the Street: An Inspector Darko Dawson Mystery by Kwei Quartey
#21 – The Upper Room by Mary Monroe
#22 Thug Matrimony by Wahida Clark
#23 – Thugs And The Women Who Love Them by Wahida Clark
#24 – Married Men by Carl Weber
#25 – I Dreamt I Was in Heaven – The Rampage of the Rufus Buck Gang by Leonce Gaiter
#1 – Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention by Manning Marable #2 – Confessions of a Video Vixen by Karrine Steffans #3 – Dear G-Spot: Straight Talk About Sex and Love by Zane #4 – Letters to a Young Brother: MANifest Your Destiny by Hill Harper #5 – Peace from Broken Pieces: How to Get Through What You’re Going Through by Iyanla Vanzant #6 – Selected Writings and Speeches of Marcus Garvey by Marcus Garvey #7 – The Ebony Cookbook: A Date with a Dish by Freda DeKnight #8 – The Isis Papers: The Keys to the Colors by Frances Cress Welsing #9 – The Mis-Education of the Negro by Carter Godwin Woodson
#10 – John Henrik Clarke and the Power of Africana History by Ahati N. N. Toure
#11 – Fail Up: 20 Lessons on Building Success from Failure by Tavis Smiley
#12 –The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness by Michelle Alexander
#13 – The Black Male Handbook: A Blueprint for Life by Kevin Powell
#14 – The Other Wes Moore: One Name, Two Fates by Wes Moore
#15 – Why Men Fear Marriage: The Surprising Truth Behind Why So Many Men Can’t Commit by RM Johnson
#16 – Black Titan: A.G. Gaston and the Making of a Black American Millionaire by Carol Jenkins
#17 – Brainwashed: Challenging the Myth of Black Inferiority by Tom Burrell
#18 – A New Earth: Awakening to Your Life’s Purpose by Eckhart Tolle
#19 – John Oliver Killens: A Life of Black Literary Activism by Keith Gilyard
#20 – Alain L. Locke: The Biography of a Philosopher by Leonard Harris
#21 – Age Ain’t Nothing but a Number: Black Women Explore Midlife by Carleen Brice
#22 – 2012 Guide to Literary Agents by Chuck Sambuchino #23 – Chicken Soup for the Prisoner’s Soul by Tom Lagana #24 – 101 Things Every Boy/Young Man of Color Should Know by LaMarr Darnell Shields
#25 – Beyond the Black Lady: Sexuality and the New African American Middle Class by Lisa B. Thompson
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By Faith S. Holsaert, Martha Prescod Norman Noonan
Judy Richardson, Betty Garman Robinson, et al.
The book opens a window onto the organizing tradition of the Southern civil rights movement. That tradition, rooted in the courage and persistence of ordinary people, has been obscured by the characterization of the civil rights struggle as consisting primarily of protest marches. In rural Dawson, Ga., Carolyn Daniels housed SNCC workers organizing for voter registration, and whites retaliated by bombing her home. But at the end of a vivid depiction of this and other anti-black terrorist acts, she writes, in an apt summary of the grass-roots organizing that is the real explanation for civil rights victories, “We just kept going and going.”
Organizing involved the kind of commitment and willingness to face risk that Penny Patch conveys in only a few short sentences describing covert nighttime meetings in plantation sharecropper shacks. Patch is white. But that did not lessen the fear or reduce the danger of remaining seated while poll watching in a country store as whites came in and out, giving her and her black co-worker menacing stares.
Full journalistic disclosure requires me to say that many of these women are friends and former comrades. But knowing the movement that we were all a part of also demands that I share my observation: While these pages look back, looking forward from them reveals that there are many useful lessons for today in the strength of these women.Charles E. Cobb Jr.
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By Charles C. Mann
Im a big fan of Charles Manns previous book 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus, in which he provides a sweeping and provocative examination of North and South America prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus. Its exhaustively researched but so wonderfully written that its anything but exhausting to read. With his follow-up, 1493, Mann has taken it to a new, truly global level. Building on the groundbreaking work of Alfred Crosby (author of The Columbian Exchange and, Im proud to say, a fellow Nantucketer), Mann has written nothing less than the story of our world: how a planet of what were once several autonomous continents is quickly becoming a single, globalized entity.
Mann not only talked to countless scientists and researchers; he visited the places he writes about, and as a consequence, the book has a marvelously wide-ranging yet personal feel as we follow Mann from one far-flung corner of the world to the next. And always, the prose is masterful. In telling the improbable story of how Spanish and Chinese cultures collided in the Philippines in the sixteenth century, he takes us to the island of Mindoro whose southern coast consists of a number of small bays, one next to another like tooth marks in an apple. We learn how the spread of malaria, the potato, tobacco, guano, rubber plants, and sugar cane have disrupted and convulsed the planet and will continue to do so until we are finally living on one integrated or at least close-to-integrated Earth. Whether or not the human instigators of all this remarkable change will survive the process they helped to initiate more than five hundred years ago remains, Mann suggests in this monumental and revelatory book, an open question.
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By Randall Kennedy
Among the best things about The Persistence of the Color Line is watching Mr. Kennedy hash through the positions about Mr. Obama staked out by black commentators on the left and right, from Stanley Crouch and Cornel West to Juan Williams and Tavis Smiley. He can be pointed. Noting the way Mr. Smiley consistently voiced skepticism regarding whether blacks should back Obama . . .
The finest chapter in The Persistence of the Color Line is so resonant, and so personal, it could nearly be the basis for a book of its own. That chapter is titled Reverend Wright and My Father: Reflections on Blacks and Patriotism. Recalling some of the criticisms of Americas past made by Mr. Obamas former pastor, Mr. Kennedy writes with feeling about his own father, who put each of his three of his children through Princeton but who never forgave American society for its racist mistreatment of him and those whom he most loved. His father distrusted the police, who had frequently called him boy, and rejected patriotism. Mr. Kennedys father relished Muhammad Alis quip that the Vietcong had never called him nigger. The author places his father, and Mr. Wright, in sympathetic historical light.
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From The World and Africa, 1965
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update 28 July 2008