ChickenBones: A Journal
for Literary & Artistic African-American Themes
As a light-skinned Black female slave, Ellen Craft changed her race,
gender, and class. Ellen became a white slave master going North in the
company of his slave (her husband). They escaped on a railroad
train and eventually made their way to Canada.
Carlyle Van Thompson
Rudy: For your study, you chose two white writers and two black writers. Their work is generally grouped around the early third of the twentieth century. Should we conclude because no female writer is in your study that the emphasis on the black buck (the black phallus) in writing is a peculiar male writer enterprise?
Thompson: The choice of two Black writers Charles Waddell Chesnutt and James Weldon Johnson along with two white writers F. Scott Fitzgerald and William Faulkner reinforces and reinscribes the themes of miscegenation, intraracial conflict, interracial conflict, and father-and-son conflictall themes that are critical to racial passing.
Indeed the literature reveals that light-skinned Black males have an easier time with passing because there is the issue of domesticity; Black female characters are depicted as having stronger connections to family. Black males passing in American literature advances the roughed individualism of masculinity and male subjectivity.
Furthermore, Johnsons novel is in dialogue with Chesnutts novel and Faulkners novel is in dialogue with Fitzgeralds novel. Although my study does not address the passing of light-skinned Black female characters, Jessie Redmon Fausets Plum Bun (1928) and Nella Larsens Passing are excellent novels of racial passing.
Rudy: Could you explain what is meant when you say one novel is in dialogue with another? Did Johnson have Chestnutts book in mind when he wrote his own; did Faulkner have Fitzgerald in mind?
Thompson: For a novel to be in dialogue (intertextuality) means that one author is speaking to a previous authors work. The dialogue can be manifest in theme, character, symbolism, or structure. For example, in Charles Waddell Chesnutts novel, the brother, John Warwick, gives his sister, Rena, a dime with a hole in it and in James Weldon Johnsons novel the white father gives the light-skinned protagonist a gold piece with a hole in it.
The connections between Fitzgerald and Faulkner are that both protagonists are bootleggers and both are connected to the death of white women, Myrtle Wilson and Joanna Burden respectively. Thus Johnson had Chesnutt in mind and Faulkner had Fitzgerald under the literary microscope.
Rudy: Your project seems to yoke two disparate subjectspassing and the black buck. Weve heard of the tragic mulatto caught between two worlds neither fully in either world. You have replaced mulatto with buck. Was it a mechanical process by which you came up with this notion of the tragic black buck, that is, a mere substitution in terms? For your tragic buck notion is novel indeed.
A native reading of passing is that it was an acceptance of whiteness, a status quo desired, but also a subtle (and unethical) means of acquiring all the benefits that come from being white in American society. Though repression occurs, the native view, however, is that passing is a weak-kneed, self-indulgent response to white racism.
You seem rather to sympathize with the passer, as one who performs a con that is admirable in its skills of adaptability and its political undermining of white power or the notion of white superiority?
Thus this blending in, however, seems rather a conservative (reactionary) movement that supports and sustains the white status quo.
Thompson: The tragic black buck represents a paradox in that by passing for white he [the passer] challenges the biological notion of white supremacy while at the same time he sustains and supports the white status quo. Implicit in the use of the word tragic is the signification on the literary trope of the tragic mulatto.
By using the word buck, I am signifying on the system of slavery in America where Black males were forced to breed with Black women in order to reproduce a product (Black children) who would also be consumed by this demonic institution.
Further the word buck reinforces the social economic aspects of racial passing. Regardless of gender, economic subjectivity is central to all novels of racial passing by Black and white writers.
Rudy: Subjectivity is a technical term you use. Does it have some specialized meaning that is necessary for your argument?
Thompson: Subjectivity within a literary context means the type of agency or power that a character has in his attempt to achieve his desire. In a white supremacist culture, having light skin and other physical features gives socioeconomic subjectivity to those Blacks who pass for white
Rudy: Aligned with your heavy use of psychoanalysis, you used passing as a kind of metaphor, as in your assertion that Frederick Douglass Narrative, is a passing rather than a passage (or exodus) document. His 1845 Narrative, you argue, is a passing document in the sense that it contains elements of masking (disguising ones true status) to escape bondage (blackness) and ending in freedom (whiteness). One wonders how Douglass would view this rereading of his life.
Thompson: By drawing on the Narrative by Frederick Douglass, I seek to emphasize that there were many Black male and female slaves who were engaged in racial passing. Fugitive slave bills are replete with announcements that escaped slaves might be attempting to pass themselves off as white individuals. Being able to speak languages other than English along with the theft of the masters clothing allowed many light-skinned Black individuals to secure and sustain their freedom.
The example of William and Ellen Craft in their narrative Running A Thousand Miles to Freedom represents a supreme depiction of the sophistication of Black individuals seeking freedom. As a light-skinned Black female slave, Ellen Craft changed her race, gender, and class. Ellen became a white slave master going North in the company of his slave (her husband). They escaped on a railroad train and eventually made their way to Canada.
Rudy: But Douglass did not pass for white, did he? If he passed he passed simply as a man, a sailor. In using passing as a metaphor, doesnt your approach undermine the historicity of the phenomena of passing?
Thompson: In writing and thinking about literature and some historical incidents, there are the literal aspects and the metaphorical aspects. Frederick Douglass did not literally pass for white, but he did symbolically pass for white because he was dressed in white sailors clothes. Like William and Ellen Craft, Frederick Douglass used similar devices to ensure his freedom. Moving from slavery to freedom represents a passing narrative.
The other important aspect of Douglass is his long relationship with a white woman while married to a Black woman and his eventual marriage to a white woman. Douglass a product of miscegenation turns the white master narrative of racial hegemony on its head.
Rudy: When you say passing represented the boldest challenge to the legal and extralegal systems of oppression, I assume you mean in the narrowest sense possible.
You suggest that this psychological phenomenon is a kind of artistic play (or artful intellectualism) and that at its best epitomizes Du Bois notion of double consciousness.
Was willful deception (an aggressive act) ever a central aspect of what Du Bois was trying to get at? Though Du Bois was light-skinned like Douglass, your reading of double-consciousness and passing yoked together in a vital relationship seems far beyond the usual life of the freed Negro.
Thompson: By yoking the concept of double consciousness to racial passing, I am attempting to address the complex psychological aspect of this racial masquerade. As Nathan Huggins sagaciously argues in Revelations: American History, American Myths (1995) racial passing has psychic penalties because Black individuals have to deny their family, their friends, and their culture. Hence there is an aggressive denial being made by the individual passing for white.
For example, in Langston Hughes’ story Passing in The Ways of White Folks the main character, Jack, who desires to marry a white woman, states that he will deny his children if they are born Black. He will declare that his white wife has had sexual relations with a Black man. Of course, unknown to his white wife he will be right; however, he represents that Black man.
Thus this story explicates the intense psychological dilemma of this man who passes his Black mother on the street and does not speak to her because he is with his white girlfriend of German ancestry who thinks that darkies are so delightful when they dance.
Rudy: Like historian Wilson J. Moses, I think that the dialectical notion of double-consciousness erected by the young Du Bois has been overrated as symbolic of the complexity of black or human consciousness. Though a useful propaganda tool, it’s a rather an oversimplified view of consciousness or even of black consciousness. What seems darkly complex (complicated) in your examples is the unethical reconciling that goes on to sustain the mask, the masquerade, a process undermining what is gained by such imaginative adaptations.
Thompson: W. E. B. Du Bois represents the most prolific intellectual that America has ever produced and his theory of double consciousness will remain a fundamental rubric when it comes to the psychological duality of Black people in a white supremacist culture.
Rudy: Du Bois was indeed a complex and complexing man, despite his double consciousness.
But this class of black buck (with a great range of individual ability) is so minute. Most blacks lack the physical opportunity to “pass,” what significance should the mulatto buck have for us not passable and for those who on ethical grounds choose not to pass? Or are you suggesting that we all “pass” whether “passable,” choice or no choice, but some of us are rather better at “passing” than others?
Thompson: To be an American means to pass because this culture requires that everyone gives something up if they want economic subjectivity.
For the Black people this sojourn is made more difficult because of the enduring nature of white supremacy, but for the light-skinned individual there are special privileges because of skin color. This individual maybe able to assume a white identity or just profit from the fact that America has racial hegemony and color hegemony.
Rudy: Is your tragic [mulatto] black buck a kind of Signifying Monkeya kind of model for contemporary black manhood? Does such an intellectual modeling pose dangerous problems, i.e., over-emphasizing individual achievement at the expense of the needs and perspective of the larger group?
Thompson: The tragic aspect of passing does involve the issues of individual subjectivity as opposed to the subjectivity of the group. Passing is a lonely journey that cuts the individual off from his family, his friends and his culture.
As Clare Redfield states in Nella Larsens novel Passing, her life is terrible lonely pale existence and she seeks to embrace the vitality of Black life. When she is found to be passing by her white husband, she experiences a tragic death as she falls or is pushed out of a window into a snow laden ground.
It would be difficult to view these four male characters as models for todays society: John Warwick in The House Behind the Cedars disappears. The nameless protagonist in The Autobiography of Ex-Coloured Man bemoans the fact that he has sold his birthright for a mess of pottage. Jay Gatsby in The Great Gatsby is shot and killed for a accident that was not his faulty. And Joe Christmas in Light in August bleeds to death after he is castrated.
The more modern passing figures Clarence Thomas and Colin Powell seem to represent the Signifying Monkey character that resists any progressive Black movement as they embrace the white phallus.
Rudy: There seems to be a resistance movement among black youth against acting [or becoming] white, and all that that entails. Aren’t they carrying on a tradition?
Thompson: Considering the issue of some Blacks using the term acting white to denounce other Black individuals, this represents a rather pathetic defense mechanism that reinforces and reinscribes white supremacy. To be educated and to think critically is not the sole purview of white individuals.
Reginald Jones of the Beatrice Group did not view himself as acting white as he made his journey to the top of the business world in America.
This issue of representation is central to my audacious analysis of Jay Gatsby as a light-skinned Black male passing as white. Some will think that Gatsby as a Black man is impossible because of his tremendous wealth and because of his romantic mission to win Daisy Buchanan back from the white supremacist, Tom Buchanan.
Wealthy and romance do not have race or gender attached to these categories.
Rudy: Acting white seems a sound critical statement about social behavior in a racist society. It is has the same quality of the tradition criticism called putting on airs. I find it of curious interest that so many status quo individuals have come down on the juvenile use of the term when they know these same kids have an extraordinary respect for intelligence. They don’t like to be played dumb.
You conclude, nevertheless, It would be reductive and ineffectual to contemplate the phenomenon of passing for white as positive or negative. Traditionally, however, black people have condemned and often pitied those who have passed and shunned this practice, not because of its complexity, but because of the personal and ethical costs.
It still remains unclear to me what is gained by the masquerading you have extolled.
Thompson: My critical objective is not simply to extol the masquerade in American literature but to offer an analysis of what these four light-skinned individuals have done in light of the enduring nature of Americas white supremacist culture that continues to dehumanize, debase, and disenfranchise Black people. Whether we agree with passing or not the literature strongly suggests that passing by race, gender, or class represents one way to achieve the American Dream and some individuals will forsake family, friends, and culture to achieve their desires.
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Carlyle Van Thompson is Associate Professor of African American and American Literature at Medgar Evers College, the City University of New York. He received his Ph.D. in English and Comparative Literature from Columbia University. Dr. Thompson is the chairperson of the Department of Languages, Literature, and Philosophy. He has published scholarly articles on the works of Toni Morrison, Ernest J. Gaines, Nella Larsen, and Charles Waddell Chesnutt. Thompson is also the editor of the Eating the Black Body: Miscegenation As Sexual Consumption in African American Literature And Culture published by Peter Lang.
Carlyle Van Thompson, Ph.D., Associate Professor of English and Chairperson / Medgar Evers College, CUNY / 1650 Bedford Avenue / Brooklyn, New York 11225 718-270-4945
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By Barbara Ransby
Skip Gates “End the Slavery Blame-Game” Nonsense
By Dr. Ron Daniels
Professor Charles Ogletree on Profiling to Beergate to the Obama
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#1 – Justify My Thug by Wahida Clark #2 – Flyy Girl by Omar Tyree #3 – Head Bangers: An APF Sexcapade by Zane #4 – Life Is Short But Wide by J. California Cooper #5 – Stackin’ Paper 2 Genesis’ Payback by Joy King #6 – Thug Lovin’ (Thug 4) by Wahida Clark #7 – When I Get Where I’m Going by Cheryl Robinson #8 – Casting the First Stone by Kimberla Lawson Roby #9 – The Sex Chronicles: Shattering the Myth by Zane
#10 – Covenant: A Thriller by Brandon Massey
#11 – Diary Of A Street Diva by Ashley and JaQuavis
#12 – Don’t Ever Tell by Brandon Massey
#13 – For colored girls who have considered suicide by Ntozake Shange
#14 – For the Love of Money : A Novel by Omar Tyree
#15 – Homemade Loves by J. California Cooper
#16 – The Future Has a Past: Stories by J. California Cooper
#17 – Player Haters by Carl Weber
#18 – Purple Panties: An Eroticanoir.com Anthology by Sidney Molare
#19 – Stackin’ Paper by Joy King
#20 – Children of the Street: An Inspector Darko Dawson Mystery by Kwei Quartey
#21 – The Upper Room by Mary Monroe
#22 Thug Matrimony by Wahida Clark
#23 – Thugs And The Women Who Love Them by Wahida Clark
#24 – Married Men by Carl Weber
#25 – I Dreamt I Was in Heaven – The Rampage of the Rufus Buck Gang by Leonce Gaiter
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#10 – John Henrik Clarke and the Power of Africana History by Ahati N. N. Toure
#11 – Fail Up: 20 Lessons on Building Success from Failure by Tavis Smiley
#12 –The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness by Michelle Alexander
#13 – The Black Male Handbook: A Blueprint for Life by Kevin Powell
#14 – The Other Wes Moore: One Name, Two Fates by Wes Moore
#15 – Why Men Fear Marriage: The Surprising Truth Behind Why So Many Men Can’t Commit by RM Johnson
#16 – Black Titan: A.G. Gaston and the Making of a Black American Millionaire by Carol Jenkins
#17 – Brainwashed: Challenging the Myth of Black Inferiority by Tom Burrell
#18 – A New Earth: Awakening to Your Life’s Purpose by Eckhart Tolle
#19 – John Oliver Killens: A Life of Black Literary Activism by Keith Gilyard
#20 – Alain L. Locke: The Biography of a Philosopher by Leonard Harris
#21 – Age Ain’t Nothing but a Number: Black Women Explore Midlife by Carleen Brice
#22 – 2012 Guide to Literary Agents by Chuck Sambuchino #23 – Chicken Soup for the Prisoner’s Soul by Tom Lagana #24 – 101 Things Every Boy/Young Man of Color Should Know by LaMarr Darnell Shields
#25 – Beyond the Black Lady: Sexuality and the New African American Middle Class by Lisa B. Thompson
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A History of the Black Press By Armistead S. Pride and Clint C. Wilson II
In this work, Dr. Wilson chronicles the development of black newspapers in New York City and draws parallels to the development of presses in Washington, D.C., and in 46 of the 50 United States. He describes the involvement of the press with civil rights and the interaction of black and nonblack columnists who contributed to black- and white-owned newspapers. . . . Through reorganization and exhaustive research to ascertain source materials from among hundreds of original and photocopied documents, clippings, personal notations, and private correspondence in Dr. Pride’s files, Dr. Wilson completed this compelling and inspiring study of the black press from its inception in 1827 to 1997.
This is a major and noteworthy contribution to scholarship on the African American press. As Washington Post columnist Dorothy Gilliam concludes in the foreword, Pride and Wilsons comprehensive history is a lasting tribute to the men and women within the black press of both the past and the present and to those who will make it what it will be in the future.
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By H. W. Brands
In Greenback Planet, acclaimed historian H. W. Brands charts the dollar’s astonishing rise to become the world’s principal currency. Telling the story with the verve of a novelist, he recounts key episodes in U.S. monetary history, from the Civil War debate over fiat money (greenbacks) to the recent worldwide financial crisis. Brands explores the dollar’s changing relations to gold and silver and to other currencies and cogently explains how America’s economic might made the dollar the fundamental standard of value in world finance. He vividly describes the 1869 Black Friday attempt to corner the gold market, banker J. P. Morgan’s bailout of the U.S. treasury, the creation of the Federal Reserve, and President Franklin Roosevelt’s handling of the bank panic of 1933. Brands shows how lessons learned (and not learned) in the Great Depression have influenced subsequent U.S. monetary policy, and how the dollar’s dominance helped transform economies in countries ranging from Germany and Japan after World War II to Russia and China today.
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By Roger W. Wilkins
In Jefferson’s Pillow, Wilkins returns to America’s beginnings and the founding fathers who preached and fought for freedom, even though they owned other human beings and legally denied them their humanity. He asserts that the mythic accounts of the American Revolution have ignored slavery and oversimplified history until the heroes, be they the founders or the slaves in their service, are denied any human complexity. Wilkins offers a thoughtful analysis of this fundamental paradox through his exploration of the lives of George Washington, George Mason, James Madison, and of course Thomas Jefferson. He discusses how class, education, and personality allowed for the institution of slavery, unravels how we as Americans tell different sides of that story, and explores the confounding ability of that narrative to limit who we are and who we can become. An important intellectual history of America’s founding, Jefferson’s Pillow will change the way we view our nation and ourselves.
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By Glenn C. Loury
In this pithy discussion, renowned scholars debate the American penal system through the lensand as a legacyof an ugly and violent racial past. Economist Loury argues that incarceration rises even as crime rates fall because we have become increasingly punitive. According to Loury, the disproportionately black and brown prison populations are the victims of civil rights opponents who successfully moved the country’s race dialogue to a seemingly race-neutral concern over crime. Loury’s claims are well-supported with genuinely shocking statistics, and his argument is compelling that even if the racial argument about causes is inconclusive, the racial consequences are clear.
Three shorter essays respond: Stanford law professor Karlan examines prisoners as an inert ballast in redistricting and voting practices; French sociologist Wacquant argues that the focus on race has ignored the fact that inmates are first and foremost poor people; and Harvard philosophy professor
Shelby urges citizens to break with Washington’s political outlook on race. The group’s respectful sparring results in an insightful look at the conflicting theories of race and incarceration, and the slim volume keeps up the pace of the argument without being overwhelming.Publishers Weekly
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From The World and Africa, 1965
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update 20 June 2012