Britannica Negro 1910

Britannica Negro 1910


ChickenBones: A Journal

for Literary & Artistic African-American Themes



after puberty sexual matters take the first place in the negro’s life and thoughts. . . .

 But though the mental inferiority of the negro to the white or yellow races is a fact,

it has often been exaggerated; the negro is largely the creature of his environment. . . .



Books by Asa G. Hilliard, III


Teachings of Ptahhotep: The Oldest Book in the World The Maroon Within Us  / SBA: The Reawakening of the African Mind


African Power  / Young Gifted and Black: Promoting High Achievement / Teaching/ Learning Anti-Racism (Foreword)


Infusion of African and African American Content in School Curriculum / Testing African American Students


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Definition of Negro 1910-1911

Excerpts Compiled

By Baffour Amankwatia II [Asa G. Hilliard III]

(22 August 1933-13 August 2007)



“Negro (from Lat, niger, black), in anthropology, the designation of the distinctly dark-skinned, as opposed to the fair, yellow, brown variations of mankind.  In its widest sense it embraces the dark races, whose original home is the intertropical and sub-tropical regions of the eastern hemisphere, stretching roughly from Senegambia, West Africa, to the Fijian Islands in the Pacific, between the extreme parallels of the Philippines and Tasmania.  It is most convenient, however, to refer to the dark-skinned inhabitants of this zone by the collective term of Negroids, and to reserve the world Negro for the tribes which are considered to exhibit in the highest degree the characteristics taken as typical of the variety. . . .

“The colour of the skin, which is also distinguished by a velvety surface and a characteristic odour, is due not to the presence of any special pigment, but to the greater abundance of the colouring matter in the Malpighian mucous membrane between the inner or true skin and the epidermis or sacrf skin.  This colouring matter is not distributed equally over the body, and does not reach its fullest development until some weeks after birth; so that new-born babies are a reddish chocolate or copper colour.  But excess of pigmentation is not confined to the skin; spots of pigment are often found in some of the internal organs, such as the liver, spleen, &c.  Other characteristics appear to be a hypertrophy of the organs of excretion, a more developed venous system, and a less voluminous brain, as compared with the white races. …

“In certain of the characteristics mentioned above the negro would appear to stand on a lower evolutionary plane than the white man, and to be more closely related to the highest anthropoids.  The characteristics are length of arm, prognathism, a heavy massive cranium with large zygomatic arches, flat nose depressed at base, &c.  But in one important respect, the character of the hair, the white man stands in closer relation to the higher apes than does the Negro. . . .

“Mentally the negro is inferior to the white.  The remark of F. Manetta, made after a long study of the negro in America, may be taken as generally true of the whole race: the negro children were sharp, intelligent and full of vivacity, but on approaching the adult period a gradual change set in.  The intellect seemed to become clouded, animation giving place to a sort of lethargy, briskness yielding to indolence.  We must necessarily suppose that the development of the negro and white proceeds on different lines.  While with the latter the volume of the brain grows with the expansion of the brainpan, in the former the growth of the brain is on the contrary arrested by the premature closing of the cranial sutures and lateral pressure of the frontal bone’. 

“This explanation is reasonable and even probable as a contributing cause; but evidence is lacking on the subject and the arrest or even deterioration in mental development is no doubt very largely due to the fact that after puberty sexual matters take the first place in the negro’s life and thoughts.  At the same time his environment has not been such as would tend to produce in him the restless energy which has led to the progress of the white race; and the easy conditions of tropical life and the fertility of the soil have reduced the struggle for existence to a minimum.  But though the mental inferiority of the negro to the white or yellow races is a fact, it has often been exaggerated; the negro is largely the creature of his environment. . . . “

Source: The Encyclopedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, 1910-1911

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Dr Asa G. Hilliard, III [Baffour Amankwatia, II]

(22 August 1933-13 August 2007)

Biographical Sketch

Dr. Asa G. Hilliard, III, was the Fuller E. Callaway Professor of Urban Education at Georgia State University, with joint appointments in the Department of Educational Policy Studies and the Department of Educational Psychology/Special Education. A teacher, psychologist, and historian, he began his career in the Denver Public Schools, teaching psychology, mathematics and American History. He earned a B.A. in Psychology, M.A. in Counseling, and Ed.D. in Educational Psychology from the University of Denver, where he also taught in the College of Education, and in the College of Arts and Sciences in the Honors Program in philosophy.

Dr. Hilliard served on the faculty at San Francisco State University for 18 years. During that time he was a Department Chair for two years, Dean of Education for eight years, and was consultant to the Peace Corps and Superintendent of Schools in Monrovia, and school psychologist, during his six years in Liberia, West Africa.

He helped to develop several national assessment systems, such as proficiency assessment of professional educators, and developmental assessments of young children and infants. He was a Board Certified Forensic Examiner and Diplomate of both the American Board of Forensic Examiners and the American Board of Forensic Medicine.

Hilliars served as lead expert witness in several landmark federal cases on test validity and bias, including Larry P v. Wilson Riles in California, Mattie T. v. Holliday in Mississippi, Deborah P. V. Turlington in Florida, and also in two Supreme Court cases, Ayers v. Fordice in Mississippi, and Marino v. Ortiz in New York City.

Dr. Hilliard was a founding member and First Vice President of the Association for the Study of Classical African Civilizations. He conducted Ancient African History study tours to Egypt for fifteen years, was the co-developer of an educational television series on Ancient Kemetic (Egyptian history). He produced videotapes and educational materials on African history through his production company, Waset Educational Productions. He was Co-Founder, with his daughter, Nefertari Patricia Hilliard-Nunn, of Makare Publishing.

Dr. Hilliard wrote more than four hundred research reports, articles and books on testing, Ancient African History, teaching strategies, African culture, and child growth and development. He served with Dr. Barbara Sizemore as Chief Consultant on the Every Child Can Succeed television series, produced by the Agency for Instructional Technology.

Dr. Hilliard consulted with many of the leading school districts, publishers, public advocacy organizations, universities, government agencies and private corporations on valid assessment, African content in curriculum, teacher training, and public policy. Several of his programs in curriculum, assessment, and valid teaching have become national models. He  worked on projects with the National Academy of Sciences, and spoke at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Smithsonian Institution, and the National Geographic Society. He was visiting professor at many Universities, including Oakland University, Stanford University, University of New Mexico, and Harvard University.

Dr. Hilliard served on such boards as the Agency for Instructional Technology, Zero to Three, The Public Education Fund Network, American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, The Far West Regional Laboratory for Educational Research and Development, and The Center for Applied Linguistics.

His most recent books are, The Maroon Within Us: Selected Essays on African American Community Socialization (Baltimore: Black Classics Press; SBA: The Reawakening of the African Mind (Gainesville, Florida: Makare Publishing); African Power (Gainesville,Florida: Makare Publishing); co-author of Young Gifted and Black (Boston Beacon Press [Winner of American Education Research Association Award for Excellence], and co author with Nefertari Hilliard-Nunn of True of Voice: The Poetry of Listervelt Middleton, Makare Publishing.

Selected Awards


Morehouse College “Candle in the Dark Award in Education”

National Alliance of Black School Educators “Distinguished Educator Award”

American Evaluation Association, President’s Award

Republic of Liberia Award as Knight Commander of the Humane Order of African Redemption

New York Society of Clinical Psychologists Award for Outstanding Research, Scholarly Achievement, and Humanitarian Service.

Association of Black Psychologists Distinguished Psychologist Award

Association of Teacher Educators Distinguished Leadership Award

Honorary Degree, DePaul University Doctor of Humane Letters

Honorary Degree, Wheelock College Doctor of Education

American Psychological Association, Fellow

Kappa Delta Pi Honor Society Laureate Chapter

American Educational Research Association Committee on the Role & Status of Minorities in Education, Research & Development Distinguished Career Contribution Award

American Association of Higher Education Black Caucus, Harold Delaney Exemplary Educational Leadership Award

American Association of Colle ges for Teacher, one time only Thurgood Marshall Award for Excellence, on the occasion of the 50th anniversary observance of the Brown versus Board of Education Topeka Decision

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The State of African Education (April 200)

Attack On Africans Writing Their Own History Part 1 of 7

Dr Asa Hilliard III speaks on the assault of academia on Africans writing and accounting for their own history.

Dr Hilliard is A teacher, psychologist, and historian.

Part 2 of 7  /  Part 3 of 7  / Part 4 of 7  / Part 5 of 7 / Part 6 of 7  /  Part 7 of 7

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Basil Davidson’s  “Africa Series”

 Different But Equal  /  Mastering A Continent  /  Caravans of Gold  / The King and the City / The Bible and The Gun

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Ancient African Nations

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John Henrik Clarke—A Great and Mighty Walk

This video chronicles the life and times of the noted African-American historian, scholar and Pan-African activist John Henrik Clarke (1915-1998). Both a biography of Clarke himself and an overview of 5,000 years of African history, the film offers a provocative look at the past through the eyes of a leading proponent of an Afrocentric view of history. From ancient Egypt and Africa’s other great empires, Clarke moves through Mediterranean borrowings, the Atlantic slave trade, European colonization, the development of the Pan-African movement, and present-day African-American history.

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music website > writing website > daily blog > twitter > facebook >

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Guarding the Flame of Life

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New Orleans Jazz Funeral for tuba player Kerwin James / They danced atop his casket Jaran ‘Julio’ Green

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02_My_Story,_My_Song.mp3 (24503 KB)

(Kalamu reading “My Story, My Song”

Featuring blues guitarist Walter Wolfman Washington)

Track List 1.  Congo Square (9:01) 2.  My Story, My Song (20:50) 3.  Danny Banjo (4:32) 4.  Miles Davis (10:26) 5.  Hard News For Hip Harry (5:03) 6.  Unfinished Blues (4:13) 7.  Rainbows Come After The Rain (2:21)/Negroidal Noise (15:53) 8.  Intro (3:59) 9.  The Whole History (3:14) 10.  Negroidal Noise (5:39) 11.  Waving At Ra (1:40) 12.  Landing (1:21) 13.  Good Luck (:04)

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The Price of Civilization

Reawakening American Virtue and Prosperity

By Jeffrey D. Sachs

The Price of Civilization is a book that is essential reading for every American. In a forceful, impassioned, and personal voice, he offers not only a searing and incisive diagnosis of our country’s economic ills but also an urgent call for Americans to restore the virtues of fairness, honesty, and foresight as the foundations of national prosperity. Sachs finds that both political parties—and many leading economists—have missed the big picture, offering shortsighted solutions such as stimulus spending or tax cuts to address complex economic problems that require deeper solutions. Sachs argues that we have profoundly underestimated globalization’s long-term effects on our country, which create deep and largely unmet challenges with regard to jobs, incomes, poverty, and the environment. America’s single biggest economic failure, Sachs argues, is its inability to come to grips with the new global economic realities. Sachs describes a political system that has lost its ethical moorings, in which ever-rising campaign contributions and lobbying outlays overpower the voice of the citizenry. . . . Sachs offers a plan to turn the crisis around. He argues persuasively that the problem is not America’s abiding values, which remain generous and pragmatic, but the ease with which political spin and consumerism run circles around those values. He bids the reader to reclaim the virtues of good citizenship and mindfulness toward the economy and one another.

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Sex at the Margins

Migration, Labour Markets and the Rescue Industry

By Laura María Agustín

This book explodes several myths: that selling sex is completely different from any other kind of work, that migrants who sell sex are passive victims and that the multitude of people out to save them are without self-interest. Laura Agustín makes a passionate case against these stereotypes, arguing that the label ‘trafficked’ does not accurately describe migrants’ lives and that the ‘rescue industry’ serves to disempower them. Based on extensive research amongst both migrants who sell sex and social helpers, Sex at the Margins provides a radically different analysis. Frequently, says Agustin, migrants make rational choices to travel and work in the sex industry, and although they are treated like a marginalised group they form part of the dynamic global economy. Both powerful and controversial, this book is essential reading for all those who want to understand the increasingly important relationship between sex markets, migration and the desire for social justice. “Sex at the Margins rips apart distinctions between migrants, service work and sexual labour and reveals the utter complexity of the contemporary sex industry. This book is set to be a trailblazer in the study of sexuality.”—Lisa Adkins, University of London

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The White Masters of the World

From The World and Africa, 1965

By W. E. B. Du Bois

W. E. B. Du Bois’ Arraignment and Indictment of White Civilization (Fletcher)

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Ancient African Nations

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Negro Digest / Black World

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The Death of Emmett Till by Bob Dylan  The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll  Only a Pawn in Their Game

Rev. Jesse Lee Peterson Thanks America for Slavery /

George Jackson  / Hurricane Carter

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The Journal of Negro History issues at Project Gutenberg

The Haitian Declaration of Independence 1804  / January 1, 1804 — The Founding of Haiti 

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posted 1 June 2010




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Related files: The Exhilarating Generosity of Asa Hilliard    On the Passing of Asa Hilliard  Asa Hilliard Obituary  If I Ain’t African  Britannica Negro 1910   Pan-African Nationalism in the Americas 

Wonderful Ethiopians of the Cushite Empire, Book II    Life And Times of John Henrik Clarke (Review)   The Global Perspective of John Henrik Clarke

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